The Johannine Letters: A Commentary on 1, 2, and 3 John is unavailable, but you can change that!

A scholarly treatment of the major literary, exegetical, and theological issues connected with the Johannine epistles, presented in a detailed and sustained fashion. Despite the relative brevity of the Johannine epistles, this commentary’s print version consisted of over 350 pages. The electronic version leaves nothing behind and is more easily searchable than ever!

shaped by the Spirit.2 The verbal link to the end of v. 24* should not, however, lead one to suppose that the concept of πνεῦμα is used without differentiation. Our text differs from what has gone before in speaking not about the Holy Spirit but about human beings who are guided by different spirits.3 ■ 1* The author takes for granted the existence of a variety of spirits (implicit in “every,” παντί). In what follows it will be apparent that this multiplicity of pneumata is at work especially
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