8 But at that time when you* did not know God, you were enslaved to the things which by nature are not gods. 9 But now, because you have come to know God, or rather have come to be known by God, how can you turn back again to the weak and miserable elemental spirits? Do you want to be enslaved to themb all over again? 10 You carefully observe days and months and seasons and years. 11 I am afraid for you, lest perhaps I have labored for you in vain! 12 I ask you, brothers, become like me, because I also have become like you. You have done me no wrong!
13 But you know that because of an illness of the flesh I proclaimed the gospel to you the first time. 14 And you did not despise or disdain what was a trial for you in my flesh, but you welcomed me like an angel of God, like Christ Jesus. 15 So where is your blessing? For I testify to you that, if possible, you would have torn out your eyes and given them to me! 16 So then, have I become your enemy by* being truthful to you? 17 They zealously seek you, not commendably, but they want to exclude you, in order that you may seek them zealously. 18 But it is good to be sought zealously in good at all times, and not only when I am present with you. 19 My children, for whom I am having birth pains again, until Christ is formed in you! 20 But I could wish to be present with you now, and to change my tone because I am perplexed about you.
Here “when” is supplied as a component of the participle (“know”) which is understood as temporal
Literally “to whom”
Here “by” is supplied as a component of the participle (“being truthful”) which is understood as means