20:18 All the people were seeing42 the thundering and the lightning, and heard43 the sound of the horn, and saw44 the mountain smoking—and when45 the people saw it they trembled with fear46 and kept their distance.47
tn The verb “to see” (רָאָה, ra’ah) refers to seeing with all the senses, or perceiving. W. C. Kaiser suggests that this is an example of the figure of speech called zeugma because the verb “saw” yokes together two objects, one that suits the verb and the other that does not. So, the verb “heard” is inserted here to clarify (“Exodus,” EBC 2:427).
tn The verb “saw” is supplied here because it is expected in English (see the previous note on “heard”).
tn The preterite with vav (ו) consecutive is here subordinated as a temporal clause to the following clause, which receives the prominence.
tn Heb “and they stood from/at a distance.”