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Viper (אֶפְעֶה, eph'eh; ἔχιδνα, echidna). Describes a variety of venomous snakes. The term usually is used in a non-literal or poetic sense in the Bible (e.g., Job 20:16; Isa 59:5; Matt 3:7; 23:33). However, Acts 28:3 uses the same Greek word in a literal sense to describe Paul’s encounter with a venomous