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Targum
Excerpt from the Lexham Bible Dictionary, the most advanced Bible dictionary.
Aramaic word meaning “translation.” Technically, this designation can refer to translation into any language. However, in rabbinic literature, the word is used to speak of the practice of translating the biblical Hebrew text into the vernacular Aramaic within Jewish synagogues. As such, the Targums were initially read aloud, performed by the targumist along with the reading of the biblical text. Later traditions forbade the use of a written targum within the synagogue’s liturgical practices (Targum Pseudo-Jonathan Megillah 4:1, 74d).
Dictionaries
The Lexham Bible Dictionary
Targum
Targum (תרגום‎, trgwm; pl. targumim). Aramaic word meaning “translation.” Technically, this designation can refer to translation into any language. However, in rabbinic literature, the word is used to speak of the practice of translating the biblical Hebrew text into the vernacular Aramaic within Jewish
The Anchor Yale Bible Dictionary
Targum, Targumim
TARGUM, TARGUMIM. The name given to the Aramaic translations of the Hebrew Bible. “Targum” is the singular form, while the plural is “Targumim.”A. TerminologyB. Texts1. The Pentateuch2. The Prophets3. The WritingsC. GenreD. Origin and ContextA. TerminologyIn biblical studies a “Targum” is an
Tyndale Bible Dictionary
Targum
TARGUM* An Aramaic translation of the OT. While technically this Hebrew word may be used to refer to any translation, targum commonly designates an Aramaic paraphrase or interpretive translation of a portion of the OT. Targums were of inestimable importance in the development of ancient Judaism. Jewish
The HarperCollins Bible Dictionary (Revised and Updated)
Targums
Targums (tahr´guhmz), translations of the books of the Hebrew Bible into Aramaic, made when Aramaic was the common spoken language in Judea. They were produced between ca. 250 bce and 300 ce and were usually read in the synagogues.
The New Bible Dictionary, Third Edition
Targums
TARGUMS. The Heb. word targum (plural targumîm) denotes an Aram. translation or paraphrase of some part of the OT. Targums are extant for every book except Ezra, Nehemiah and Daniel.
Eerdmans Dictionary of the Bible
Targum
TargumA written translation or paraphrase of a biblical text. The need for rendering the Bible into Aramaic or Greek arose in the Second Temple period, when for many Jews the Hebrew of ancient Scriptures ceased to be the spoken language. The Greek LXX and Aramaic Targum of Job discovered at Qumran (11QTJob)
Eerdmans Bible Dictionary
Targum
Targum [tärˊgŭm] (Aram. targûm “interpretation, translation”). † An Aramaic translation or paraphrase of an Old Testament text. The extant written Targums had their beginnings with the oral rendering into the Aramaic vernacular of portions of the Hebrew Bible that took place as part of regular
Dictionary of Jesus and the Gospels
Targums
TargumsInterpretive renderings of the Hebrew Bible in Aramaic for use in synagogue* worship* are called by the Aramaic term targûm (pl. targûmîm), meaning simply “translation.” But the type and purpose of the rendering involved in Judaism* was distinctive. The general phenomenon of targum needs
Catholic Bible Dictionary
Targum
TARGUM (Hebrew, “translation”) An Aramaic translation of the Hebrew Bible. Targums are found for every book of the Old Testament except for Ezra, Nehemiah, and Daniel. The Targums emerged as a direct result of the Babylonian Captivity. After the Exile, Aramaic replaced Hebrew as the common language of
Dictionary of New Testament Background
Rabbinic Literature: Targumim
RABBINIC LITERATURE: TARGUMIMThe term targum simply means “translation” in Aramaic, but the type and purpose of the rendering involved in Judaism was distinctive. The general phenomenon of targum needs to be appreciated, and the specific documents involved (targumim) need to be described before the
The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church
Targum
Targum. The name, meaning ‘translation’, given to the Aramaic interpretative translations of the OT made when Hebrew had ceased to be the normal medium of speech among the Jews. They were the outcome of the explanatory oral matter which for a long time had been added to the Scripture lections in the