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Peter
Excerpt from the Lexham Bible Dictionary, the most advanced Bible dictionary.
An apostle of Jesus Christ and one of the three named pillars of the early church in Jerusalem. Peter was the first Christian missionary to the Gentiles, a Christian missionary to the Jews, and a Christian martyr in Rome. Also called Cephas.
Dictionaries
The Lexham Bible Dictionary
Peter the Apostle
Peter the Apostle (Πέτρος, Petros). An apostle of Jesus Christ and one of the three named pillars of the early church in Jerusalem. Peter was the first Christian missionary to the Gentiles, a Christian missionary to the Jews, and a Christian martyr in Rome. Also called Cephas.
Bar-Jonah
Bar-Jonah (Βαρ-ιωνᾶς, Bar-iōnas). An Aramaic patronymic meaning “Son of Jonah” that Jesus used in reference to Simon Peter (Matt 16:17).
Simeon, Son of Jacob
Simeon, Son of Jacob (שִׁמְעוֹן‎, shim'on, Συμεών, Symeōn). The second son of Jacob and his wife Leah. Ancestor of the tribe of Simeon.
Twelve, the
Twelve, the Twelve, The. A term used in the New Testament to refer to Jesus’ most prominent group of disciples.
The Anchor Yale Bible Dictionary
Peter (Person)
PETER (PERSON) [Gk Petros (Πετρος)]. Var. SIMON PETER; SIMON; CEPHAS. The most prominent of the 12 disciples of Jesus.A. Pauline LettersB. Book of ActsC. Gospel of MarkD. Gospel of MatthewE. Gospel of LukeF. Gospel of JohnG. The Petrine EpistlesH. The Apocryphal WritingsA. Pauline LettersThere
Simeon (Person)
SIMEON (PERSON) [Heb šimʿôn (שִׁמְעֹון)]. SIMEONITE. 1. The second son of Leah and Jacob and the full brother of Reuben, Levi, Judah, Issachar, Zebulun, and Dinah. Simeon is also the eponymous ancestor of the tribe whose territory is found within the S limits of Judah. The etymology is obscure, but
Simon (Person)
SIMON (PERSON) [Gk Simōn (Σιμων)]. The name of a number of persons mentioned both in the Apocryphal literature of the OT as well as in the NT.1. Simon Chosamaeus (Gk Chosamaios), who provided a list of those who were found to have married foreign wives (1 Esdr 9:32; cf. Shimeon in Ezra 10:31).2. Simon
Twelve, the
TWELVE, THE. In the gospel of Mark, the Twelve (hoi dōdeka; anathrous in Mark 3:14) are a group of disciples chosen by Jesus to be his special companions (Mark 3:14; 4:10; 11:11; 14:17). They were particularly instructed by Jesus (Mark 9:35; 10:32) and were sent by him to proclaim the coming of the
Baker Encyclopedia of the Bible
Peter, The Apostle
Peter, The Apostle. One of Jesus’ 12 disciples who rose to preeminence both among the disciples during Jesus’ ministry and among the apostles afterwards. There are actually four forms of his name in the NT: the Hebrew/Greek Simeon/Simon and the Aramaic/Greek Cephas/Petros. His given name was Simon bar-Jonah
Bar-Jona
Bar-Jona. Aramaic form of Simon Peter’s surname, meaning “son of Jonah” (Mt 16:17). Another variant of the name appears in John 1:42 and 21:15–17, where the best Greek texts have “son of John” rather than “son of Jona(s)” (kjv).See Peter, The Apostle.
Cephas
Cephas. Aramaic name of Simon Peter the apostle in John 1:42; 1 Corinthians 1:12; and Galatians 1:18.See Peter, The Apostle.
Simeon (Person)
Simeon (Person). 1. Second of the 12 sons of Jacob (Gn 35:23; 1 Chr 2:1) and the second son borne to him by Leah (Gn 29:33). Simeon fathered six sons (Ex 6:15) and settled his family in Egypt with Jacob and his brothers (1:2). He was the founder of the Simeonites (Nm 26:12–14) and one of the 12 tribes
Simon
Simon. Greek form of a Hebrew/Aramaic name meaning “God has heard.”1. Son of Jona (Mt 16:17) or John (Jn 1:42), Andrew’s brother (v 40), and surnamed Cephas and Peter (respectively Aramaic and Greek, for rock, v 42) by Jesus. A fisherman of Bethsaida (Mk 1:16; Jn 1:44), he became an apostle of Jesus’
Twelve, The
Twelve, The. Designation for the 12 disciples/apostles in 1 Corinthians 15:5.See Apostle, Apostleship.
The International Standard Bible Encyclopedia, Revised
Peter
Peter [Gk. Petros, for Kēphas < Aram kêp̱āʾ]. A disciple of Jesus and apostle of the early Church.The NT literature gives prominent place to Peter, whose life and ministry fall conveniently into the three categories indicated by O. Cullmann’s comprehensive study, Peter: Disciple-Apostle-Martyr.
Bar-Jonah
Bar-Jonah băr-jōʹnə [GK. Bar-iōnas]. Simon Peter’s patronymic (Mt. 16:17). Bar is Aramaic for “son” (cf. Bar-timaeus, Bartholomew, etc.), and corresponds to Heb. bēn. This would indicate that Peter’s father’s name was Jonah. But in Jn. 1:42; 21:15–17, according to the best reading, his name is given
Cephas
Cephas sēʹfəs [Gk. ho Kēphas < Aram kêp̱ā’—‘rock’] (Jn. 1:42, etc.). The Aramaic surname of Peter.
Simeon
Simeon simʹē-ən [Heb. šimʿôn—‘hearing’; Gk. Symeōn]; NEB also SYMEON (Lk. 3:30); SIMEONITES-īts [Heb. šimʿōnî].
Simon (NT)
2. Simon Peter; son of John (Jn. 1:42; 21:15–17; Jona, Mt. 16:17) and brother of Andrew (Jn. 1:40). See Peter.
Tyndale Bible Dictionary
Peter, the Apostle
PETER, THE APOSTLE One of the 12 disciples; rose to prominence both among the disciples during Jesus’ ministry and among the apostles afterwards.There are actually four forms of Peter’s name in the New Testament: the Hebrew translated into Greek, “Simeon” to “Simon,” and the Aramaic translated into
Bar-Jona
BAR-JONA* Aramaic form of Simon Peter’s surname, meaning “son of Jonah” (Mt 16:17). Another variant of the name appears in John 1:42 and 21:15–17, where the best Greek texts have “son of John” rather than “son of Jona[s]” (kjv). See Simon Peter.
Cephas
CEPHAS Aramaic name of Simon Peter the apostle in John 1:42; 1 Corinthians 1:12; and Galatians 1:18. See Simon Peter.
Simeon (Person)
SIMEON (Person)1. Second of the 12 sons of Jacob (Gn 35:23; 1 Chr 2:1) and the second son borne to him by Leah (Gn 29:33). Simeon fathered six sons (Ex 6:15) and settled his family in Egypt with Jacob and his brothers (1:2). He was the founder of the Simeonites (Nm 26:12–14) and one of the 12 tribes
Simon
SIMON Greek form of a Hebrew/Aramaic name meaning “God has heard.” Nine men in the NT had this name:1. Son of Jona (Mt 16:17) or John (Jn 1:42), Andrew’s brother (v 40), and surnamed Cephas and Peter (respectively Aramaic and Greek, for “rock,” v 42) by Jesus. A fisherman of Bethsaida (Mk 1:16; Jn 1:44),
Symeon
SYMEON* Alternate spelling of Simeon, the name of a member of the church in Antioch (Acts 13:1). See Simeon (Person) #4.
Twelve, the
TWELVE, THE Designation for the 12 apostles in 1 Corinthians 15:5 and other verses. See Apostle, Apostleship.
The HarperCollins Bible Dictionary (Revised and Updated)
Peter
Peterpeter was a galilean and one of the twelve disciples of Jesus. His given name was Simon, but Jesus bestowed upon him the nickname “Peter” (GK., “rock”; Matt. 10:2; Mark 3:16; Luke 6:14). He is sometimes referred to as Cephas, the Aramaic version of that name, which Jesus would no doubt have actually
Cephas
Cephas (see´fuhs; from Aramaic kepha’, “rock”), a surname equivalent to the Greek name “Peter” (John 1:42; cf. Matt. 16:17–18). See also Peter.
Simeon
Simeon (sim´ee-uhn; Heb., “to hear”).1 The second son of Jacob and Leah (Gen. 29:33). Simeon and his brother Levi massacred the men of Shechem to avenge the rape of their sister, Dinah (Gen. 34, recalled in Jth. 9:1–4). Simeon was later held hostage in Egypt when Joseph sent the other brothers back
Simon
Simon (si´muhn).1 Simon Maccabeus, the son of Mattathias Hashmon and ruler of Judea 142–134 bce. Following in the tradition of his brothers Judas Maccabeus and Jonathan, he led the Jewish forces against the Seleucids and won independence for Judea, establishing the Hasmonean dynasty, which would endure
Twelve, The
twelve, the, a group chosen by Jesus to accompany him and share his ministry. The twelve are listed in four different places in the nt, but the lists show some variance (Matt. 10:2–4; Mark 3:16–19; Luke 6:13–16; Acts 1:13–14; cf. John 6:70). The most significant difference is that Matthew and Mark both
The Wycliffe Bible Encyclopedia
Peter
PETER. One of the earliest and most prominent disciples of Jesus. Several names are given him: the Heb. name Simeon (Acts 15:14) and Gr. Simon, after a son of Jacob whose descendants became one of the tribes of Israel; Cephas (Jn 1:43) and Peter, both meaning “rock.” See Simeon; Simon; Cephas.Origin
Cephas
CEPHAS (Gr. kēphas, from Aram. kēpa˒, “rock or stone”).A name given by Jesus to the apostle Simon (Jn 1:42; 1 Cor 1:12; 3:22; 9:5; 15:5; Gal 2:9). Peter is the Gr. equivalent of Cephas. See Peter; Simon; Simeon.
Simeon
SIMEON1. The second son of Jacob by his wife Leah (Gen 29:33), but not one of the major figures in Israel’s history. He is better known as a secondary figure in his association with his brother Judah. With his full brothers Reuben, Levi, and Judah, he became the leader in avenging the rape of his sister
Simon
SIMON. This name occurs in the Bible only in the NT, designating a number of different persons. Perhaps it is a contraction of the Heb “Simeon,” which occurs mostly in the OT, although occasionally in the NT. See Simeon.1. The best known Simon was the apostle, often called Peter; so named by Jesus (Mt
The New Bible Dictionary, Third Edition
Simeon
SIMEON. 1. The second son of Jacob by Leah (Gn. 29:33). Heb. šim‘on was derived from šāma‘, (‘to hear’), and its significance is given in Gn. 29:33. Simeon took part with Levi in the massacre of the men of Shechem for dishonouring their sister Dinah (Gn. 34). He also played a prominent part in the
Simon
SIMON. A later form of the OT name of Simeon (see Acts 15:14, where James uses the older form; also 2 Pet. 1:1, rv mg., neb).1. The chief disciple and apostle of Jesus, who was the son of Jonas (or John) and the brother of Andrew. Jesus gave him the name of *Peter.2. The ‘Canaanite’ (Mt. 10:4; Mk.
Eerdmans Dictionary of the Bible
Peter
Peter (Gk. Pétros)Simon bar Jonah, nicknamed Cephas or Peter (Aramaic and Greek for “rock”) by Jesus. Since Simon was a common Jewish name and a number of others are mentioned in the Gospels and Acts, the nickname became the common designation for the man, although the Gospels report Jesus often calling
Bar-Jona
Bar-Jona (Gk. Bariōnás)Simon Peter’s patronymic (Matt. 16:17; cf. Heb. bar yônâ, “son of Jonah”). At John 1:42; 21:15–17 the disciple is called “son of John.” It is not clear if two different names are indicated or a single Hebrew name is rendered into Greek in two different ways.
Cephas
Cephas (Gk. Kēphás)Nickname or surname given the Apostle Peter (from Aram. kêp̱āʾ, “rock”).See Peter.
Simeon
Simeon (Heb. šimʿôn)1. The second son of Jacob (Gen. 35:23); the eponymous ancestor of the tribe whose territory was within the southern limits of Judah (Josh. 19:1–9). Simeon and his brother Levi exacted treacherous and violent revenge for the rape of their sister Dinah by a local prince called Shechem
Simon
Simon (Gk. Sɩ́mon; Heb. šimʿôn)1. Simon, surnamed the Just (Gk. dikaios, also meaning “righteous”), who according to Josephus (Ant. 12.43) succeeded his father Onias in the high priesthood. This places him within the period of Ptolemy I’s rule over Judea (301–282 b.c.e.). A scholion to Megillat Taʿanit
Symeon
Symeon (Gk. Symên)1. A prophet and teacher in the church at Antioch who was surnamed Niger and may have been, therefore, black (Lat. niger; Acts 13:1 RSV; NRSV “Simeon” [6]).2. Another name for Simon Peter (Acts 15:14; 2 Pet. 1:1 RSV).
Twelve, the
Twelve, theThe central circle of Jesus’ disciples, whom he called to be apostles. The term “the Twelve” appears in all four Gospels (even after the death of Judas at John 20:24; cf. Luke 24:9). Lists of the Twelve in the Synoptic Gospels and Acts agree on the number but not entirely on their names (Matt.
Eerdmans Bible Dictionary
Peter
Peter [pēˊtər] (Gk. Petros).† Simon Peter, the most prominent of Jesus’ twelve disciples.
Bar-Jona
Bar-Jona [bär jōˊnə]. Simon Peter’s patronymic (Gk. Bariōnas; cf. Heb. bar yônâ “son of Jonah”). While at Matt. 16:17 the disciple is called Bar-Jona, the son of Jonah, at John 1:42; 21:15–17 he is named the son of John (KJV “Jona”). It is not certain whether Peter’s father had two different
Cephas
Cephas [sēˊfəs] (Gk. Kēphas, from Aram. kêp̱ā˒ “rock”). See Peter.
Twelve, the
Twelve, the (Gk. hoi dó̄deka). The central circle of Jesus’ disciples, whom he called to be apostles. The term “the Twelve” appears in all four Gospels (even after the death of Judas at John 20:24; cf. Luke 24:9). Lists of the Twelve in the Synoptic Gospels and Acts agree on the number but not entirely
Dictionary of Paul and His Letters
Peter
PeterPaul never refers to the apostle Peter by his original name of Simon (Simōn, as frequently in the Gospels) or Simeon (Symeōn, as in Acts 15:14 and the preferred text of 2 Pet 1:1). Only twice (Gal 2:7, 8) does he use the name Peter (Petros, or “Rock”) given to Simon by Jesus (Mt 16:17–18; Mk
Catholic Bible Dictionary
Peter
PETER (Greek petros, “rock”) Simon Peter, apostle of Jesus Christ, leader of the Twelve, and chief shepherd of the early Christian Church. He is seen and heard frequently in the Gospels and Acts and is the alleged author of two New Testament epistles, 1 and 2 Peter (1 Pet 1:1; 2 Pet 1:1).
B. Peter and Paul
B. Peter and PaulThe title “Acts of the Apostles” was given to the book at least by the second century a.d., but the book focuses chiefly on two main apostles: Peter and Paul. The entire book can, in fact, be divided into two major sections, the first following the leadership of Peter (chaps. 1–12)
Bar-Jona
BAR-JONA (Aramaic, “son of Jonah”) The surname of Simon Peter (Matt 16:17).
Simeon
SIMEON The name of three men in the Bible.1. The second son of Leah and Jacob (Gen 35:23); the full brother of Reuben, Levi, Judah, Issachar, Zebulun, and Dinah; and the founder of the tribe of Simeon. His name in Hebrew is a play on the verb “to hear,” as indicated in the words of his mother, “Because
Simon
SIMON The name of a large number of men in the Bible.1. Also Simeon. The second son of Mattathias, the brother of Judas and Jonathan, and a key figure in the Maccabean revolt who established the Hasmonean Dynasty. Also known as Thassi, he was praised as a man “wise in counsel” (1 Macc 2:65) and went