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The Lexham Bible Dictionary
Medicine Surveys ancient medical practices contemporary with biblical events.
The Anchor Yale Bible Dictionary
Medicine and Healing
MEDICINE AND HEALING. Throughout the biblical tradition, healing is perceived as the work of Yahweh and his divinely empowered agents. In the Hellenistic period, these agents include physicians, although for the most part the biblical writers are hostile toward medicine, or they simply ignore it as having
Baker Encyclopedia of the Bible
Medicine and Medical Practice
Medicine and Medical Practice. Either the field of knowledge dealing with the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of diseases, or the actual substances used to diagnose, treat, or prevent disease.Medicine as a branch of knowledge received little attention from the Hebrew people of OT times, in contrast
The International Standard Bible Encyclopedia, Revised
Medicine [Heb. gēhâ] (Prov. 17:22); NEB “countenance”; [Heb. rep̱ûʾâ] (Jer. 30:13; 46:11) NEB REMEDY. Words designating medicines are rather rare in the OT. In addition to those listed above there are more general words for “health,” “healing,” “remedy,” etc. See Heal.Unless the NEB reading is
Tyndale Bible Dictionary
Medicine and Medical Practice
MEDICINE AND MEDICAL PRACTICE The field of knowledge dealing with the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of diseases, as well as the actual substances used to diagnose, treat, or prevent disease.Medicine as a branch of knowledge received little attention from the Hebrew people of OT times, in contrast
Eerdmans Bible Dictionary
Medicine. *Like other ancient peoples, premonarchic Israel relied mainly on priests who functioned as medical practitioners. Accordingly, the varied purification procedures that involve the activity of the priests (Lev. 12–15) should be viewed in terms of this conjunction of medical and religious authority.
Catholic Bible Dictionary
MEDICINE The practice of medicine was well established in the ancient Near East. Egyptian surgeons performed basic procedures, and the typical healer was familiar with a wide range of herbs and potions, some of which had real effect. Mesopotamia also had physicians, and the doctor who lost a patient
Smith’s Bible Dictionary
Medicine. Egypt was the earliest home of medical and other skill for the region of the Mediterranean basin, and every Egyptian mummy of the more expensive and elaborate sort involved a process of anatomy. Still we have no trace of any philosophical or rational system of Egyptian origin; and medicine
The New Unger’s Bible Dictionary
Diseases, Treatment of
DISEASES, TREATMENT OF. The Hebrews were greatly inferior in scientific culture to their powerful neighbors Egypt, Assyria, and Greece. We have no allusion in the OT to scientific schools, and it is improbable that such existed. There were schools for the education of religious teachers, but we have
International Standard Bible Encyclopedia
MEDICINE<med’-i-sin>, <med’-i-s’-n> (גֵּהָה‎ [gehah], תְּרוּפָה‎ [teruphah], רַפֻאָה‎ [rephu’ah]): These words are used in the sense of a remedy or remedies for disease. In Prov 17:22 the King James Version, a merry heart is said to do good “like a medicine.” There is an alternative reading in the
Compton’s Encyclopedia
medicineThe practice of medicine—the science and art of preventing, alleviating, and curing disease—is one of the oldest professional callings. Since ancient times, healers with varying degrees of knowledge and skills have sought to restore the health or relieve the distress of the sick and injured.
veterinary medicine
veterinary medicineWhat physicians are to humans, veterinarians are to animals. Veterinarians prevent, diagnose, and treat animal diseases and manage other animal disorders. They perform surgery and prescribe and administer drugs. Their practice is called veterinary medicine, or veterinary science.
diagnosisThe process of identifying a disease and its cause is called a diagnosis. To correctly diagnose a problem, the physician gathers facts about the patient’s condition and reviews them in a logical manner. Further facts may be needed to distinguish between possible diagnoses, though in some cases
Key passages
Tob 6:5

Then the angel said to him, “Slit open the fish and remove the heart, liver, and gall. Set them safely aside.”

Tob 6:7–9

Then the young man said to the angel, “Brother Azariah, what are the liver, heart, and gall of the fish for?” And he said to him, “As for the heart and the liver, if a demon or evil spirit troubles someone, so let these things make smoke before a man or woman; and no more will the person be troubled. …

Tob 11:7–8

And Raphael said, “I know that your father will open his eyes. You, smear the gall into his eyes, and when it stings, he will rub hard, and he will throw away the whiteness. Then he will see you.”

Tob 11:11–13

and took hold of his father and sprinkled the gall on his father’s eyes, saying, “Take courage, Father!” And when they started to sting, he rubbed his eyes hard, and the white spots scaled off from the corners of his eyes. Then seeing his son, he fell upon his neck

Sir 38:4–8

The Lord created medicines out of the earth, and a prudent man will not be irritated at them. Was not water made sweet by a piece of wood to make his power known? And he gave humans skill to be glorified by his marvelous deeds. By them he healed and removed his pain. The druggist …

See also
Je 51:8–9;
See also
Topics & Themes