The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church
Lutheranism. A confessional movement within the W. Church tracing its origins to the theology of M. *Luther and various formulae collected in the Book of *Concord (1580, q.v.). These writings, which claim to ‘introduce nothing … that is either contrary to Holy Scripture or the universal Christian church’ (*Augsburg
The Lutheran Cyclopedia
Lutheranism, American
Lutheranism, American, a term employed by a school of writers to designate, not “Lutheranism in America,” but a modification of Lutheranism adapted to American surroundings, involving doctrinal, as well as governmental and liturgical changes. It claimed to be “a virtual return from almost endless sectarian
Acta Historico-Ecclesiastica
Acta Historico-Ecclesiastica. A periodical published at Weimar (20 vols.) 1734–56, particularly important because of much contemporary material concerning the beginnings of the Lutheran Church in this country. Three volumes of Appendices appeared (1746–53), -followed by an exhaustive index in 1760. The
Adiaphoristic Controversies
Adiaphoristic Controversies. There were two within the Lutheran Church. The first took place soon after the death of Luther and had reference to religious rites and ceremonies; the second formed a part of the pietistic controversies and concerned practical life.I. Having been victorious in the Smalcald
Altar-Fellowship. The confessional difference between the Lutheran and Reformed divisions of Protestantism led from the start to separate or close denominational communion in the Lord’s Supper. The Lutheran Church took this course under a strong conviction of the duty of maintaining thus a constant testimony
America, North, Lutheran Ch
America, North, Lutheran Ch. I. Early Settlements. In 1623, the earliest Lutherans in America came with the first Dutch colony from Holland to Manhattan Island. At first prevented from establishing public worship by severe laws and heavy fines, they at length, by the aid of the mother church in Amsterdam
America, South, Lutheran Church in
America, South, Lutheran Church in. As early as 1580 the Dutch secured a foothold upon the northeastern part of South America, and they still retain Dutch Guiana as well as several of the Leeward Islands. This accounts for the early settlement of Lutherans in South America. Lutheran churches were founded
Art in the Lutheran Church
Art in the Lutheran Church. “The Lutheran Church loves the arts, and wishes them to enter the Church, that they may adorn the worship of God.” Pictures and statues were retained in the churches, unless they were abused by superstition. Music received a further and characteristic development. (See Church
Baden, Lutheran Church in
Baden, Lutheran Church in. The present Archduchy of Baden includes besides the original possessions of the Margraves of Baden-Durlach and Baden-Baden several territories which in the time of the Reformation belonged to other States, e.g. one in the South to Austria, one in the north to the Palatinate,
Bavaria, Lutheran Church in
Bavaria, Lutheran Church in. The present kingdom of Bavaria was organized from 1808–10 by Napoleon, who added, to the former electorate of Bavaria, a number of petty states and free cities (e.g. Nuremberg, Augsburg, Lindau); thus a large new state with a very mixed population was formed. The Lutheran
Bible Revision, Lutheran
Bible Revision, Lutheran. In 1883, the great Luther jubilee year, the Canstein Bible Society, the oldest and most influential society of its kind in Germany, published the so-called “Probe-Bibel,” which upon its title-page was described as the first edition of a revision of the Luther Bible prepared
Bohemia, Lutheran Church
Bohemia, Lutheran Church. Konrad von Waldhausen (†1369). John Milicz (†1374), and Matthias von Janow (†1394) started a movement at Prague which, influenced by Wiclif of England and carried on by John Huss and Jerome of Prague, spread over Bohemia and led to the terrible Hussite war. After it, in 1467,
Calvinizing Lutheran Churches
Calvinizing Lutheran Churches. The attempt to Calvinize Lutheranism first appears in the Crypto-Calvinistic Controversy, (1552–1574). (See article). The struggle began at Hamburg where Westphal assailed Calvin’s doctrine, (1552). In Bremen Hardenberg and in Heidelberg Klebitz attacked the Lutheran position.
Census Reports
Census Reports. The Decennial Reports made by authority of the United States, have been giving increased attention to religious organizations. Those of the census of 1890 are particularly full and complete. Dr. Henry K. Carroll, the Religious Editor of the New York Independent was charged with the collection
Ceremonies in the Lutheran Church
Ceremonies in the Lutheran Church. See Agenda; Consensus of Agenda; Liturgy; Church Usages; Administration of the Sacraments. See also Horn, Luther on the Principles and Order of Christian Worship; Jacoby, Liturgik der Reformatoren. Luther struck the keynote in his essay, Von der Ordnung des Gottesdienstes
Chicago, Lutheran Church in
Chicago, Lutheran Church in. The beginnings of the Lutheran Church in Chicago date back a little more than half a century. In 1844 Norwegian services were held here. In 1846 the German work was organized under the care of the Missouri Synod. In 1853 the Swedes organized their parent congregation, Immanuel.
Church Extension in the Lutheran Church
Church Extension in the Lutheran Church. A Lutheran Church Extension Society was organized at Frederick, Md., May 19, 1853. A few days later the proceedings of the convention and the constitution there adopted were laid before the General Synod, and “cordially approved” by that body. While holding its
Commentaries, Lutheran
Commentaries, Lutheran, had their rise in Luther’s early lectures on the Psalms. His works from these early annotations, through the comments on the minor prophets, the powerful exegetic-dogmatic exposition of Galatians, remarks on the gospels, to the ripe and full work on Genesis, contain much, which
Common Service, The
Common Service, The. The title of The Common Service for the Use of Evangelical Lutheran Congregations, prepared by a Joint Committee of the General Synod, General Council and United Synod of the South, first published 1888, and often since, is adopted in the book of the English District of the Missouri
Connecticut, Lutherans in
Connecticut, Lutherans in. According to the census of 1890, there were in the state 37 congregations and 5,762 communicants. Of these the General Council had 24 congs. and 3,767 comms., divided between the Swedish Augustana and New York Synods. The Synodical Conference had eight congs. and 1,405 comms.,
Courts, The Lutheran Church in the
Courts, The Lutheran Church in the. The presence of more than fifty cases in our different State Reports, wherein the Lutheran Church is a party in interest, testifies to the fact that the history of the Church in this country has not been one of uninterrupted peace and harmony. A large number of these
Dakotas, Lutheran Church in
Dakotas, Lutheran Church in. The following are the statistics of U. S. census of 1890:North Dakota.Congregations.Communicants.General Council381,582Synodical Conference181,136Joint Synod of Ohio170Hauge’s Synod16576Norwegian Synod532,784Icelandic Synod81,779United Norwegian
Danish Evang. Luth. Church in America
Danish Evang. Luth. Church in America. The Danes did not come to this country in any considerable numbers as soon as the Swedes and Norwegians, but there were occasional arrivals from an early date. The first Danish minister in America was Pastor Rasmus Jensen, who came to Nova Dania, Hudson Bay, in
Devotional Literature of the Luth. Church
Devotional Literature of the Luth. Church. Devotion is that habit of the believer’s heart which responds to the means of grace with a reverent aspiration toward God. The acts of devotion are meditation, prayer and worship. Devotional literature includes all those writings which are adapted to nourish
Diets, Lutheran, in America
Diets, Lutheran, in America. Two free diets were held in Philadelphia, Pa., in the years 1877 and 1878, in response to invitations widely extended to all Lutherans, clerical and lay, without respect to synodical connections. About one hundred ministers, and perhaps as many laymen of divergent views and
Education in the Lutheran Church
Education in the Lutheran Church. Throughout the Middle Ages, education was regarded as an exclusive function of the Church. The principal schools of this long period were the monastic schools, cathedral and parochial schools, and during the latter part of the Middle Ages, burgher schools and the universities.
English Lutheran Literature
English Lutheran Literature. The want of Luth. literature in the English language was greatly felt in the development of the English work in the Church. The first attempts to supply it were connected with the providing of books of worship and for catechization. The number of English books that appeared
Ethics, Lutheran
Ethics, Lutheran. Ethics, derived from the Greek ĕthos (Ionic ēthos), custom, also called morality, from Latin mos, will, is improperly the description of the moral life, and properly the realization of this life. Its Christian character gives it the proper source, authority, and aim. The source is the
Four Points
Four Points. At the organization of the General Council, the invitation for the union with it of all Luth. bodies adopting its fundamental principles of faith and church polity, was answered by several of the larger synods that accepted the Council’s subscription to the confessions, with the statement
Fundamental Articles
Fundamental Articles. The distinction of articles of faith into fundamental and non-fundamental has proceeded from the conception of the organic relation between all the contents of revelation, and the central position in this organism of certain doctrines. It does not proceed from the thought that anything
Galesburg Rule
Galesburg Rule, so called from the meeting of the General Council at Galesburg, Ill., in 1875. It belongs to a series of interpretations of the Pittsburg Declaration of 1869 concerning the Four Points (see Four Points) asked by synods that desired a stricter practice. What is generally known as the Galesburg
General Council of the Lutheran Church in North America
General Council of the Lutheran Church in North America. The Ministerium of Pennsylvania was the first of the old Eastern synods which fully acknowledged all Luth. confessions in 1853, and thus returned to its original position of 1748. As in Germany, a conservative reaction (from about 1850) led many
Germany, Luth. Church in
Germany, Luth. Church in. About the middle of the sixteenth century the Luth. Reformation had conquered the greater part of Germany. Even in the Austrian crown lands of the Hapsburg dynasty, it had taken firm root, in spite of the fact that the central power of the Emperor was altogether devoted to the
Grace Churches
Grace Churches, is the name of six Luth. churches in Hirschberg, Landshut, Sagan, Freistadt, Pless, and Militsch, Austria, which were built after Chas. XII. of Sweden had secured from Austria at the Old-Ranstädt Convention (1707) the re-opening of 121 Luth. churches, which had been closed in Silesia,
Halle, its Institutions
Halle, its Institutions. Hala, a fort for the protection of the salt springs, given by Otto I. in 961, to the Archbishops of Magdeburg, a powerful Hansa city in the Middle Ages, frequently at war with its archbishops, subdued by Ernest in 1478, who built the “Moritzburg” in 1503, in order to hold the
Hamburg, The Luth. Church in
Hamburg, The Luth. Church in. Hamburg, the largest and most influential seaport on the continent of Europe, is a free city of about 500,000 inhabitants. The Reformation was formally introduced into this city on the 28th day of April in 1528.In 1523 a certain Franciscan monk from Rostock, Stephan Kempe,
Historical Society of the Evangelical Luth. Church, The
Historical Society of the Evangelical Luth. Church, The, was organized in Baltimore, after the adjournment of the General Synod there, a.d. 1843, by “delegates of Synod and others.” Its object is “to make a collection of the published writings of Luth. ministers and laymen in America, whether original
Homiletical Literature, Luth
Homiletical Literature, Luth. The Reformation of the sixteenth century marks the turning point in the history of sermons. The Church of the Reformation broke away from the legalism of the Middle Ages, to lead back to the Bible as the only power of faith, and over against the delusion of work-righteousness
Hungarian Lutherans in America
Hungarian Lutherans in America. A number of Hungarian Luth. congregations are found in the coal regions of Eastern and Western Pennsylvania and of Illinois, and also on the coast of New Jersey. The majority of the members are Slovakians and Slavonians, the Hungarians proper, the Magyars, not being equally
Iceland, The Luth. Church of
Iceland, The Luth. Church of. Iceland became Christian peaceably by an agreement of the Althing in the year 1000. It was then a small but flourishing commonwealth, and most of the wisest and best men longed for the new light of Christianity. They were conscious of the insufficiency of the old Æsir worship,
Immigration. The first Luth. immigrants who, in large numbers, came to the New World were the Lutherans from the Netherlands. Though not actually oppressed for their adherence to the Augs. Conf., after the promulgation of the Articles of Dort, the Lutherans were yet looked upon as really belonging to
Independent Lutherans in Germany
Independent Lutherans in Germany. The existence of independent Lutherans in Germany is due to the fact that the error—excusable as it may be historically—was made at the time of the Reformation of constituting the summepiscopate of the sovereign. The decretum horribile of Frederick William III. of Prussia,
Irenics, Luth
Irenics, Luth., has to do with those truths in which may be found points of agreement between Lutherans. It is not to be regarded as a distinct department of Luth. theology, but, rather, as the special method of using truth in the discussion of Luth. dogmatics. The object contemplated in Luth. irenics
Jewish Missions of the Luth. Church
Jewish Missions of the Luth. Church. The mission among the Jews, as far as the Luth. Church is concerned, does not commence with the Reformation. At the beginning of his career Luther appeared well disposed toward the Jews, and in his treatise Dass Christus ein geborner Jude war (i.e. that Jesus was
Kropp Seminary
Kropp Seminary. The Evang. Luth. Theological Seminary of Kropp, located near Schleswig, in the Prussian province of Schleswig-Holstein, Germany, owes its existence to the large increase of German emigration to America after the conclusion of the American and German wars. Among others the General Council,
Laity, Luth. Conception of
Laity, Luth. Conception of. The word laity is derived from lay, which is from the Latin laicus, equivalent to the later Greek laïkos, which means, belonging to the people (laos). Laity therefore, according to its form, denotes collectively all those that belong to the people, the mass of the people.
Language Question
Language Question. The difficult and delicate problem how to carry our Luth. faith from the languages of the immigrants, particularly the German and Scandinavian, into the dominant language of the United States, the English, is as old as the history of the organization of the Luth. Church on this continent.
Lapland, Luth. Church in
Lapland, Luth. Church in. Gustavus Vasa and Charles IX. of Sweden established parishes in Lapmarken, but had not the right men for the self-denying work. Gustavus Adolphus encouraged Nicolaus Andreæ to found a mission seminary at Piteo. John Skytte founded a boarding school at Lyksele, whose pupils helped
Leipzig Colloquium
Leipzig Colloquium or Conference. when the evang. estates met in Leipzig (1631), at a convention (Leipzig Convent) led by John Geo. I. of Saxony, and formed a union to maintain peace in Germany (Leipziger Bund), which the emperor interpreted as a hostility, there was a request to confer on religious
Lithuania, Luth. Church in
Lithuania, Luth. Church in. Lithuania, east of Poland, at one time extended from the Baltic to near the mouth of the Dnieper at the Black Sea. Its wild hordes were conquered and Christianized by the German knights, to whom, in 1337, the government was entrusted by the Emperor Ludwig, the Bavarian.Abraham
Luther Jubilees
Luther Jubilees. Public and formal celebrations in memory of Martin Luther were first held at the centennials of his death, in 1646 (particularly in Wittenberg and Erfurt); in 1746, in Wittenberg, Leipzig, Erlangen, Erfurt, Goettingen, Nuernberg, Torgau, Weimar, Augsburg, and other places. (See Dr. M.
Luther League, The
Luther League, The. The first steps toward the organization of the Luther League was taken in April, 1887, by the Jung-Maenner-Verein of St. Peter’s German Evang. Luth. Church, New York City, who resolved to visit the Luth. societies of the different churches in that city for the purpose of urging the
Luther Libels
Luther Libels. Bengel truly said: “Post Christum nemo tot calumnias ferre quam Lutherus debuit, neque ipsi Apostoli.” The calumnies heaped upon Luther during his lifetime were crowned by that famous pamphlet which, one year before his death, gave a graphic description of how he had been carried off by
Luther Medals
Luther Medals. The most important collection of engravings of Luther Medals, accompanied by explanations, is: Juncker, Christian, Vita D. Martini Lutheri et successuum Evangelicæ Reformationis Jubilæorumque Evangelicorum (Frankfort and Leipzig, 1699). It contains plates of 145 medals; and of these 26
Luther Plays
Luther Plays. The heroic figure of Martin Luther has repeatedly been used as the theme of dramatic poetry. One of the best religious dramas of the sixteenth century, “Eine schoene und lustige neue Action von Anfang und Ende der Welt, darin die ganze Historia unsres Herrn und Heilandes, Jesu Christi,
Lutherischer Verein
Lutherischer Verein (Luth. Society) is an organization founded (1848) in Pomerania, which asks that the Luth. Ch. and Confession be recognized. It was led by three supts., Otto, Mila, and Meinhold. Similar associations were formed in Silesia (under Oehler and Kahnis), Brandenburg, Saxony, Posen, Westphalia.
Michael’s, St., Philadelphia
Michael’s, St., Philadelphia. The beginnings of the Luth. Church in Philadelphia are involved in obscurity. According to the late Dr. Mann, Fabricius, the pastor of the Swedish congregation, preached to the Germans of Philadelphia between 1688–91. The oldest Register is of 1733, and is in the handwriting
Misrepresentations of the Luth. Church
Misrepresentations of the Luth. Church. Of these the chief are that the Luth. Church teaches: (1) Transubstantiation; (2) Consubstantiation; (3) The Romish doctrine of the Mass; (4) The Romish doctrine of Baptismal Regeneration; (5) Private confession and absolution in the Romish sense.With reference
Missionary Societies, Luth
Missionary Societies, Luth. A. “The American Ev. Luth. Missionary Society” was founded by members of the E. L. Ministerium of Penna. in 1836, and in 1842 appointed Rev. C. F. Heyer its missionary in India. The (old) “General Synod’s Foreign Miss. Society,” in 1843, appointed Rev. W. Gunn assistant of
Mysticism in Relation to the Luth. Church
Mysticism in Relation to the Luth. Church. The essence of mysticism is the immediate union of the soul with the Infinite. It is not identical with theology, although often allied with it. It is not peculiar to Christianity; it is found also in other religions. It has been characterized as “a creeping
Old Lutherans
Old Lutherans is the name originally given the independent Lutherans of Prussia, who, not willing to accept the Prussian Union, sought separate church organization. (See Indep. Lutheran; Huschke; Scheibel.) They were called old Lutherans because they sounded the return to the old Luth. confessions, the
Orthodoxy, Orthodoxism
Orthodoxy, Orthodoxism. The Luth. Church has always laid great stress on purity of doctrine, soundness in doctrine. By this is meant, the confession of the doctrines revealed in the Word of God, the Canonical Books of the Old and New Testament, for the salvation of mankind. In the work of the Reformation,
Orthodoxy, Period of
Orthodoxy, Period of. In the Luth. Church the seventeenth century is known as the period of orthodoxy. After many struggles during the sixteenth century, the union which was marked by the adoption of the Formula of Concord resulted in such unamimity of teaching, in conformity with the confessions of
Persecution of Lutherans
Persecution of Lutherans. The Reformation was from the beginning confronted by the spirit of persecution inherent in the Roman Catholic Church. It was not owing to the enemies of Luther that he was not made a martyr. The first martyrs of the evangelical faith were the two members of the Augustinian order,
Poland, Luth. Church in
Poland, Luth. Church in. Until 1772 Poland was a large and powerful kingdom, comprising, besides the Russian Poland of today, Livonia and Courland on the north, all of western Prussia and eastern Pomerania, together with Posen on the west, Galizia on the south, and Padolia, Ukraine, Volhynia, and the
Polemics, Luth
Polemics, Luth. Polemics is derived from a Greek word (polemos) meaning war, and denotes the art of war or controversy. In theology it is the name of that branch which, in contradistinction to apologetics and symbolics, defends the truth by attacking the error opposing it. Since the Luth. Church lays
Postil, Luther’s Church
Postil, Luther’s Church. Among the earlier postils are those of Gregory the Great, the Venerable Bede, Paul the deacon, etc.; as more immediate predecessors of Luther were von Janow and Hus. At the very beginning of the Reformation, L. felt the necessity for the publication of simple expositions of the
Postil, Luther’s House
Postil, Luther’s House. Expositions of the pericopes made by Luther to his family and friends at his home, on Sundays from 1530 to 1534, when he did not preach in church. They were published in two editions, one from notes made by Veit Dietrich (1544), and the other by George Rörer (1559); Erlangen edition,
Prayer-Meetings in the Luth. Church
Prayer-Meetings in the Luth. Church. The term prayer-meeting is used to describe gatherings for mutual edification, under the direction of the pastor, in which, besides the exposition of some portion of the Scriptures, prayer, which laymen also are called upon to lead, constitutes a large part of the
Public School System, Luther’s Relation to the
Public School System, Luther’s Relation to the. Martin Luther deserves to be assigned a foremost place among educational Reformers. His achievements in behalf of education have generally been lost sight of in the presence of is vast work in the reformation of the Church. Directly and indirectly the great
Reformed, Relations of Lutherans to
Reformed, Relations of Lutherans to. The separation among those who protested against the abuses of the Roman Catholic Church in the sixteenth century was occasioned by the dissatisfaction of Zwingli and others with Luther for not making his work of reformation, in their opinion, sufficiently comprehensive.
Religious Liberty and the Luth. Church
Religious Liberty and the Luth. Church. Absolute religious liberty cannot co-exist with, a state church, and in Europe the Luth. Church is a state church. Other denominations cannot be put upon an equal footing before the law, and dissenters from the Established Church suffer certain civil disabilities,
Revers. A solemn declaration in writing and signed in the presence of witnesses, required of ministers, candidates for ordination, and even congregations in which they state their acceptance of the Luth. standards of faith and promise obedience to the Synod. Such statements were usually required in Germany
Sacerdotalism, Relation of the Lath. Church to
Sacerdotalism, Relation of the Lath. Church to. The term sacerdotalism is generally applied to the theory that teaches that a propitiatory sacrifice for sin must be offered by the intervention of an order of men separated to the priesthood. It is that conception of the priesthood which is taught in the
San Francisco, Luth. Church
San Francisco, Luth. Church. According to the last U. S. census, there were in San Francisco seven Luth. congregations, with 2,096 communicants, viz. General Synod, one, with 220; General Council, one, with 313; Synodical Conference, two, with 470; Norwegian Church in America, one, with 150; Danish Church
Schoharie, St. Paul’s Evangelical Luth. Church in
Schoharie, St. Paul’s Evangelical Luth. Church in. In 1711 a colony of Lutherans from the Palatinate, who had landed in New York the previous year, settled in the Schoharie valley, 30 miles west of Albany, and were the first white people who there made their home among the Indians, with whom they lived
Scholasticism in the Luth. Church
Scholasticism in the Luth. Church. Scholasticism stands for two things, a method and a theology. The method is the application of the most rigorous appliances of logic to the formulation and analysis of theological definitions. The method per se cannot be vicious, as sound logic always must keep within
Statistics, Luth
Statistics, Luth. The Luth. Church in this country is not a foreign sect, recently transplanted to these shores; but the beginning of its interesting history dates back almost to the first permanent settlements in the country. As early as 1623, Lutherans were among the colonists on Manhattan Island,
Sunday, Luth. view of
Sunday, Luth. view of. This is to be found in Art. XXVIII. of the Augsburg Confession, and in the expositions of the Third Commandment in the Catechisms of Luther. The obligation of the Christian to observe the day by cessation from other employments in order to give attention to the Word of God, and
Sunday-Schools in the Luth. Church
Sunday-Schools in the Luth. Church. Their History and Character in this Country.—The Sunday-School may be said to have originated in the Bible-school of the ancient synagogue. The two essential characteristics of the modern Sunday-School are the interlocutory method of instruction, and the system of
Theology, Luth. Conception of
Theology, Luth. Conception of, is determined by the Luth. conception of God. God is contemplated not as an abstraction, but as a personality; not as afar off, but always at hand; not as a wrathful judge, but as a loving Father reconciled in Christ, with whom his child lives in loving communion. It is
Theses, Ninety-Five, of Luther
Theses, Ninety-Five, of Luther.In the desire and with the purpose of elucidating the truth, a disputation will be held on the under-written propositions at Wittemberg, under the presidency of the Reverend Father Martin Luther, Monk of the Order of St. Augustine, Master of Arts and Sacred Theology, and
Young People’s Societies
Young People’s Societies. Various forms of organization among Luth. young people have been in vogue in the Church, for over a quarter of a century. The Young Men’s Association, composed solely of the young men in the congregation, is probably the oldest of any known organization; an association of this
A Catholic Dictionary
luther and lutheranism. Martin Luther was born at Eisleben, Saxony, November 10, 1483, and died there February 18, 1546. His father was a peasant who afterwards became a miner. Soon after Martin’s birth the family removed to Mansfeld, and there the lad received his early education. The public or elementary
Compton’s Encyclopedia
LutheranismWith more than 68 million members throughout the world, the Lutheran churches today constitute the largest denomination to emerge from the Protestant Reformation that began in Germany in 1517. (See also Luther; Reformation.) The greatest number of Lutherans, more than 50 million, live in
Dictionary of Phrase and Fable
Lu′therans. Dr. Eck was the first to call the followers of Martin Luther by this name. It was used by way of contempt.
Global Dictionary of Theology: A Resource for the Worldwide Church
Lutheran Theology
LUTHERAN THEOLOGYAt its core, Lutheran theology is a radical attempt at an evangelical articulation of the Christian message that emerged in the sixteenth century through the courageous efforts of the German Reformer Martin Luther (1483–1546) and his followers. With the help of Philipp Melanchthon,
Pocket Dictionary of Liturgy & Worship
Lutheran Hymnal
Lutheran hymnal. A *liturgical book of the LC which contains, along with the *hymns, various liturgies for *Sunday worship, the *Daily Office and *baptism (among other things).
Pocket Dictionary of the Reformed Tradition
Lutheranism. The Christian tradition identified with the teaching of Martin *Luther and his successors, such as Philipp *Melanchthon, Martin Chemnitz and Johann Gerhard. The Roman Catholic Church excommunicated Luther and his followers after disagreements regarding key issues, especially the doctrine
sola fide
sola fide. A hallmark of *Luther’s theology, this Latin phrase meaning “faith alone” articulates that *salvation and *justification are the work of God and received by *faith alone and not achieved by *good works, although most Reformation *confessions affirm that good works always accompany saving faith.
sola gratia
sola gratia. Latin phrase meaning “grace alone,” a watchword of *Luther and the entire *Reformation emphasizing the sheer gift of *salvation from beginning to end, and motivating believers to place full confidence and *assurance in God’s promises and power to save.
A Dictionary of Christ and the Gospels: Aaron–Zion
Christ In The Seventeenth Century
CHRIST IN THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY.—The 17th cent. is the age of Protestant scholasticism. A strong Catholic reaction had set in, which weighed on the minds of the defenders of the Protestant faith, and shackled the freedom of theological thought. In their treatment of the Christological problem, both
Dictionary of Theological Terms
LutheranismThe church and theology produced by the 16th century German Reformation under the leadership of Martin Luther. Their major tenets of historical importance were:1. The Scriptures are the very inspired and authoritative word of God (sola Scriptura);*2. Salvation is by grace alone (sola gratia);*
Dictionary of Luther and the Lutheran Traditions
American Lutheranism Controversy
American Lutheranism Controversy“American Lutheranism” refers to a nineteenth-century attempt to create a uniquely American form of Lutheranism. While it included broad, nondoctrinal issues, such as language, ethnicity, worship styles, and conversion techniques, its primary controversy was an attempt
Danish-American Lutheranism
Danish-American LutheranismA Dane, Rasmus Jensen, conducted the first Lutheran worship in the Western Hemisphere in 1619 aboard a ship, and Danish Lutherans established a congregation on the Caribbean island of St. Croix in 1666; however, the few Danes who settled in the New World prior to the 1800s
Economic Life and Lutheranism
Economic Life and LutheranismThe general view of Luther’s teaching on economic life is that it was mired in late medieval thought and practice. He roundly condemned the practice of usury while Calvin did not, thus making economic life in the Lutheran territories less dynamic. He believed money was “sterile”
Finnish-American Lutheranism
Finnish-American LutheranismIn the eighteenth century, although some Finns were in the colony of New Sweden on the Delaware, the bulk of the 230,000 Finns who immigrated to North America came toward the end of the nineteenth century, settling in the upper Midwest, the Pacific Northwest, and Canada.
Norwegian-American Lutheranism
Norwegian-American LutheranismIn the century between 1825 and 1925, when immigration was heaviest, one-third of Norway’s population came to the United States. This period overlapped with Norway’s post-Napoleonic union with Sweden, which ended in 1905. A growing sense of national identity followed adoption
Printing in Sixteenth-Century Lutheranism
Printing in Sixteenth-Century LutheranismThe invention of printing with moveable type by Johannes Gutenberg in Mainz in the mid-fifteenth century, about forty years before Martin Luther was born, has been called a media revolution. The new technique permanently changed the way learned books were produced,
American Lutheran Church (1930–60)
American Lutheran Church (1930–60)The ecumenical movement of the twentieth century included numerous achievements of unity among Lutheran church bodies in the United States, of which the formation of the American Lutheran Church (ALC, 1930–60) in 1930 was among the most significant, both for what it
American Lutheran Church (1960–88)
American Lutheran Church (1960–88)The American Lutheran Church (1960–88) was formed in 1960 by the merger of the American Lutheran Church (ALC), the Evangelical Lutheran Church (ELC), and the United Evangelical Lutheran Church (UELC); officially called The American Lutheran Church (TALC); and became
Balkan Lands
Balkan LandsIn the sixteenth century two empires were fighting for control over southeastern Europe. The Ottoman Turkish Empire had been steadily expanding toward the northwest since the end of the fourteenth century. Following key battles in Kosovo (1389) and Nicopolis (1396), the sultan’s army conquered
Confession (Private) and the Confessional
Confession (Private) and the ConfessionalDespite Martin Luther’s sharp criticism of the late medieval sacrament of penance in the early years of the Reformation, he was consistently a strong proponent of a revised version of private confession and absolution. Luther believed that the sacrament of penance
Devotional Literature
Devotional LiteratureLutheran teaching sought not only to reshape the theological focus of Western Christianity but also to reorient the way Christians gave expression to their faith in their daily lives. For this reason, from the very beginning, the reform movement produced books and pamphlets designed
Evangelical Lutheran Church in America
Evangelical Lutheran Church in AmericaThe largest Lutheran denomination in North America is the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America (ELCA), with 3.8 million members in 9,900 congregations, grouped in 65 synods around the United States. It is headquartered in Chicago and headed by a presiding bishop.
FinlandFinland is the easternmost Scandinavian country; its language and culture are distinctive, but historically its Christianity has been Western and, since the Reformation, Lutheran. Christianity came to Finland in the eleventh century from both east and west, but the Western church gained ground
Finnish Interpretation of Luther
Finnish Interpretation of LutherIn the last several decades, Tuomo Mannermaa, professor of ecumenical theology at Helsinki, and his students have proposed a paradigm shift in reading Luther’s theology of salvation and justification. Criticizing German Luther research, such as that of Adolf von Harnack
General Council of the Evangelical Lutheran Church in North America
General Council of the Evangelical Lutheran Church in North AmericaAs an American Lutheran church body, the General Council of the Evangelical Lutheran Church in North America (1866–1918) was formed in 1866 by dissidents who left the General Synod of the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America. The 1850s
General Synod
General SynodThe Evangelical Lutheran General Synod of the United States of North America, more commonly known as the General Synod, came into existence in 1820, uniting two-thirds of the Lutherans in the United States. The chief architect of the General Synod was Samuel Simon Schmucker (1799–1873),
General Synod South
General Synod SouthThe church bodies comprising Lutherans in the southeastern United States in existence between 1863 and 1918 were called the United Synod of the Evangelical Lutheran Church in the South. General Synod South commonly delineates three separate organizations in existence between 1863
Igreja Evangélica de Confissão Luterana No Brasil
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Igreja Evangélica Luterana Do Brasil
Igreja Evangélica Luterana do Brasil (IELB) (Evangelical Lutheran Church of Brazil)With about 240,000 members in 2014, Igreja Evangélica Luterana do Brasil (IELB) is the second largest Lutheran Church in Brazil. Its beginnings go back to the German immigration to southern Brazil during the nineteenth
Independent Lutheran Organizations
Independent Lutheran OrganizationsVarious incorporated or unincorporated, charitable or nonprofit or not-for-profit independent Lutheran organizations have been established—often but not exclusively in the United States, with varying duration—by those who identify themselves as Lutheran, to serve or
Inner Mission
Inner MissionThe Inner Mission was an organization dedicated to coordinating social reform and welfare for Protestant churches in Germany. Already Martin Luther, Johannes Bugenhagen, and the developing Lutheran territorial churches emphasized poor relief, especially in the form of community chests.
Inner-Lutheran Ecumenism
Inner-Lutheran EcumenismInner-Lutheran ecumenism is the nature and nurture of biblical, confessional, and practical agreement for what since the nineteenth century has been designated “altar and pulpit fellowship” among ecclesial bodies designating themselves as Lutheran.Since the Reformation, inner-Lutheran
International Lutheran Council
International Lutheran CouncilAs a worldwide association of strongly confessional Lutheran church bodies, the International Lutheran Council (ILC) represents over 3.5 million baptized Lutherans worldwide. The ILC has its historical roots in a gathering of leaders from Lutheran churches around the world
KirchenordnungenThe Lutheran church ordinances (Kirchenordnungen) formed one of the most tangible expressions of the theological and ecclesiastical innovations of the Protestant Reformation. Enacted by both city governments and territories in the Holy Roman Empire and beyond, the ordinances addressed
Law, Uses of The
Law, Uses of theLutheran theological reflection concerning uses of the law represents an attempt to clarify the purpose and function of the law, especially in light of the doctrine of justification. The Lutheran discernment of law into distinct uses is a consequence of the discernment of God’s Word
LiberiaThe Lutheran Church in Liberia (LCL) has tripled in size over the last twenty years. Its more than 71,000 members have been deeply affected by fourteen years of civil war (1989–2003). Trauma healing, peace building, and reconciliation are important dimensions of the work of LCL today.Lutheran
Luther Congresses
Luther CongressesThe International Congress for Luther Research is an academic forum for Luther and Reformation scholars, convening for a week every four to six years, and steered by a Continuation Committee of ten scholars, mostly theologians and church historians, representing German, Nordic, North
Luther Interpretation
Luther Interpretation and ReceptionThe thought and career of Martin Luther have attracted praise, criticism, careful analysis, and subjugation to a variety of agendas throughout the centuries since 1517. His initial followers experienced in Luther a larger-than-life personality, whose linguistic and
Luther Renaissance
Luther RenaissanceA widespread scholarly movement interested in the theology of Martin Luther and sparked by the publication of the Weimar edition of Luther’s Works (begun at the four-hundredth anniversary of Luther’s birth in 1883), the Luther Renaissance was flourishing in the years following the
Luther’s Roman Catholic Opponents
Luther’s Roman Catholic OpponentsThe Roman Catholic response to Luther proved as diverse as the Reformation itself. Many humanists—Bernhard Adelmann, Vitus Bild, Erasmus of Rotterdam—expressed deep sympathy with Luther, even if ultimately they could not embrace the extent of his reforms or his theology.
Luther’s Works
Luther’s WorksLuther’s writings, published and in manuscript, have experienced repeated editing and printing in collections, including those that aspired to offering readers the “complete” oeuvre.The first “collected works” of a living author appeared in 1518, when the Basel printer Johannes Oporinus
Lutheran Church in America
Lutheran Church in AmericaThe Lutheran Church in America (LCA) (1963–88) was an American Lutheran united church body, the result of the merger of the American Evangelical Lutheran Church (predominantly Danish-American), the Augustana Evangelical Lutheran Church (predominantly Swedish-American), the
Lutheran Church-Missouri Synod
Lutheran Church-Missouri SynodThe Lutheran Church-Missouri Synod was organized in April 1847 in Chicago as Die deutsche evangelisch-lutherische Synode von Missouri, Ohio und anderen Staaten (The German Evangelical Lutheran Synod of Missouri, Ohio, and Other States). Congregations in the states of Illinois,
Lutheran Council in the United States of America
Lutheran Council in the United States of AmericaA cooperative body of US Lutherans, the Lutheran Council in the United States of America (1967–88) is popularly known as LCUSA and was formed in 1967 by the American Lutheran Church (ALC), the Lutheran Church in America (LCA), the Lutheran Church-Missouri
Lutheran Denominations in America, Minor
Lutheran Denominations in America, MinorAs of 2016 there were two major Lutheran denominations in the United States, the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America (3.8 million members) and the Lutheran Church-Missouri Synod (2.1 million), as well as a medium-sized denomination, the Wisconsin Evangelical
Lutheran Education
Lutheran EducationEarly Lutherans, starting with Martin Luther and Philip Melanchthon, gave considerable attention to the nature and function of education. They recognized that their theological reforms necessitated educational reforms as well, not only in universities but in other schools as well.
Lutheran Orthodoxy
Lutheran OrthodoxyLutheran Orthodoxy refers to a movement of primarily academic theology produced in Germany, the Nordic countries, and Eastern Europe during the post-Reformation period. More than most terms of its kind, it is a literary construct. Lutheran theologians began referring to themselves
Lutheran Social Services
Lutheran Social ServicesThe term “Lutheran social services” refers both to a broad range of programs by which Lutherans have responded to ever-changing social needs and to specific Lutheran organizations in the United States. It typically denotes programs and services, rooted in the Lutheran ethos of
Lutheran World Federation
Lutheran World FederationThe Lutheran World Federation (LWF) is a global body of 145 churches, which in 2016 comprised over seventy-two million people in ninety-eight countries. Thus the LWF embraces about 95 percent of the world’s Lutherans. While the majority of these are still found in historic centers
Ministerium of Pennsylvania
Ministerium of PennsylvaniaAs the first Lutheran synod organized in North America, the Ministerium of Pennsylvania (1748–1962) became the model for many other Lutheran denominations. When Henry Melchior Mühlenberg arrived in Pennsylvania in 1742, as called by three congregations, he found a number of
Morogoro, Lutheran Junior Seminary
Morogoro, Lutheran Junior SeminaryThe Lutheran Junior Seminary at Morogoro is a leading Lutheran school in Tanzania. At independence (1961), Christian churches were responsible for 60 percent of education in Tanganyika (Tanzania); the Lutheran Church was the second largest contributor. When the Leipzig
Reformation, Anniversaries
Reformation and Luther Jubilees, AnniversariesSpecial commemorations of Luther’s life, death, and reforming activities connected to the Wittenberg movement have served to define anew the significance of the reformer and his reform throughout Lutheran history. Sixteenth-century followers of Luther noticed
Seminex and the Association of Evangelical Lutheran ChurchesThe American Lutheran seminary called Seminex was related to the Association of Evangelical Lutheran Churches from 1973 to 1987. In the 1950s and 1960s, some elements within the Lutheran Church-Missouri Synod began to adopt moderating theological
Smalcald Articles
Smalcald ArticlesAs one of three documents in the Book of Concord by Martin Luther, the Smalcald Articles distinctively articulate the Evangelical-Lutheran doctrinal program. Luther’s emphasis on “the first and chief article” (SA 2.1) gets to the core: only Christ justifies sinners through God’s grace
StateOne of the main protests of the Lutheran Reformation concerned the relationship of the Roman Catholic Church to the governments of the time, the Holy Roman Empire, and individual territories within it. Luther believed that the Roman Catholic Church had enmeshed itself too deeply in political affairs,
Synergistic Controversy
Synergistic ControversyA doctrinal dispute in the late 1550s among Lutheran theologians seeking to clarify Luther’s understanding of the role of the human will in conversion is termed the synergistic controversy. The Philippists and Gnesio-Lutherans debated the question of the role of the human will
Two Realms
Two RealmsLuther’s term zwei Reiche (two kingdoms/realms) has wrought confusion within and outside Lutheran circles because, unaware that he was formulating terminology to be used for centuries, he was not careful in his use of the phrase.Luther employed the phrase in at least three different ways.
Twofold Righteousness
Twofold RighteousnessLuther’s distinction of “two kinds of righteousness,” or “twofold righteousness,” served as a foundation of his understanding of what it means to be human. It presumed that God’s righteousness is his loving, merciful disposition that expresses itself in the unconditioned creation
United Lutheran Church in America
United Lutheran Church in AmericaAs an American Lutheran church body, the United Lutheran Church in America (ULCA, 1918–62) formed in 1918 by the merger of three Lutheran groups embodying the Mühlenberg tradition and located predominantly in the eastern United States. The first general church body in
Youth Work
Youth WorkLutherans’ concern for the education of its youth began already during the Reformation, where catechisms like Luther’s helped to instruct them in the basics of the faith. Work with orphans became a particular emphasis of the Franckean Institutions at Halle, which flourished in the eighteenth
See also
Topics & Themes