Capital and Labor • Hard Labor • Overwork • Toil • Work
The International Standard Bible Encyclopedia, Revised
Labor[Heb nouns yeg̱î (a)ʿ, maʿaśeh, melāʾḵâ, ʿaḇōḏâ, ʿāmāl, ʿeṣeḇ, peʿullâ]; AV also SERVICE; NEB also WORK, PROPERTY (Neh. 5:13), etc.; [verbs ʿāśâ, ʿāḇaḏ, yāg̱aʿ, ʿāmal, ʾûṣ]; AV also TRAVAIL, WROUGHT, SERVE; NEB also WORK, TOIL, etc.; [Aram hithpaal part of šeḏar]
Toil [Heb. ʿiṣṣāḇôn, ʿeṣeḇ] (Gen. 3:17; 5:29; Ps. 127:2; Prov. 14:23); AV also SORROW, LABOUR; NEB also (HARD) LABOUR; [ʿāmāl] (Dt. 26:7; Ps. 90:10; 105:44; Eccl. 1:3; 2:10f, 18, etc.; 3:9, 13; etc.; Jer. 20:18); AV LABOUR, TRAVAIL; NEB also HARDSHIP, LABOUR, TRY; [hiphil of ʿāḇar (emended
The HarperCollins Bible Dictionary (Revised and Updated)
labor. Ancient Near Eastern society knew several varieties of manual labor. Herding, fishing, and various tasks associated with farming (plowing, planting or sowing, harvesting, winnowing, storing in barns) come up especially often. Women were often in charge of the family home, but they worked in the
The Wycliffe Bible Encyclopedia
LABOR. The English translation of a variety of Heb. and Gr. words used to indicate an even greater variety of functions (physical, mental, spiritual). All, however, are somehow related to the regular activity (both in the sense of maintenance and productivity) of fulfilling the purpose of one’s being.
Eerdmans Dictionary of the Bible
Labor, Work, Toil
Labor, Work, ToilHuman activity in the form of work, toil, and labor is expressed in a variety of ways in Scripture reflecting its economic, moral, and spiritual significance.The term “work” covers a wide range of meaning which includes both constructive activity and that which is made. This is reflected
Eerdmans Bible Dictionary
Labor, Work
Labor, Work. †In creation God was the first laborer (Gen. 2:2–3; Heb. melā˒ḵâ), and he continues to work in nature and human history (John 5:17; Gk. ergázomai). Humans first experienced labor as creatures involved in the work of creation (cf. Gen. 1:26, 28; 2:5, 15). Mankind’s fall into sin
The New Unger’s Bible Dictionary
LABOR. This English term is the rendering of a large number of Hebrew and Greek terms. The teaching of Scripture (Gen. 2:15) is that man, even in his state of innocence, was to lead a life of activity, which was different, however, from the trouble and restlessness of the weary toil into which he was
Harper’s Bible Dictionary
Laborlabor, a term mentioned in a variety of contexts in the Bible meaning manual labor or great effort. Near Eastern society knew several types of work and workers: the farmer, shepherd, craftsman, day laborer (Matt. 20:1–15), forced labor for the monarchy (1 Sam. 8:11–17), native slave (Exod. 21:2–11),
International Standard Bible Encyclopedia
LABOR<la’-ber> (יַגִיעַ‎ [yeghià], עָמָל‎ [̀amal]; [κόπος, kopos]): The word (noun and verb) denoting hard work or “toil” (thus in the Revised Version (British and American) of Deuteronomy 26:7; Joshua 7:3; Revelation 2:2) represents several Hebrew and Greek words, chiefly those above. Occasionally,
Compton’s Encyclopedia
laborIn the most general sense labor means work. Young children know that when they grow up they will get a job, earn money, and use that money to live. This appears to be a basic fact of life, as basic as growing up itself. Actually, however, this form of earning a living, exchanging hours of work
child labor
child laborThe employment of children below a specified legal age is referred to as child labor. While work such as apprenticeship programs or after-school part-time employment can build character and prepare young people for careers, work that exploits children and interferes with their education is
A Dictionary of Christ and the Gospels: Aaron–Zion
LABOUR.—The verb κοπιᾶν in NT Greek signifies not only the weariness produced by constant toil (see Jn 4:6 κεκοπιακώς), which is the idea attaching to the word in classical writings (cf. Liddell and Scott’s Lex. s.v.); it also has reference to the toil itself (cf. Mt 6:28, 11:28, Lk 5:5, 12:27, Jn
Holman Treasury of Key Bible Words: 200 Greek and 200 Hebrew Words Defined and Explained
LaborHebrew expression: ʿamalPronunciation: ´aw MAWLStrong’s Number: 5999Key VersesEcclesiastes 2:10, 24; 5:18–19; 8:15; 10:15What is the good life? Or, how are we to occupy ourselves in days on this earth? From the time of the Garden of Eden, the Lord had decreed that humans should work—God
The Zondervan Encyclopedia of the Bible, Volume 3, H–L
Labor, Work
labor, work. The English term labor (as noun or verb) is used variously by Bible versions to render a number of terms, especially such nouns as Hebrew yĕgîaʿ H3330 and ʿăbōdâ H6275, and Greek ergon G2240 and kopos G3160 (as well as their cognate verbs). These can refer to work in the physical (originally
Key passages
Mt 20:1–16

“For the kingdom of heaven is like a man—the master of the house—who went out early in the morning to hire workers for his vineyard. And after coming to an agreement with the workers for a denarius per day, he sent them into his vineyard. And going …

Lk 15:19

I am no longer worthy to be called your son! Make me like one of your hired workers.’

Ac 20:35

I have shown you with respect to all things that by working hard in this way it is necessary to help those who are in need, and to remember the words of the Lord Jesus that he himself said, “It is more blessed to give than to receive.”