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Kiyyun
Excerpt from the Lexham Bible Dictionary, the most advanced Bible dictionary.
Also spelled Kiyyun. The Mesopotamian name for Saturn, worshipped by the Mesopotamians as a god (Amos 5:26). The prophet Amos refers to “Sikkuth” and “Kiyyun,” but both names are vocalized in Hebrew according to words for idols (שִׁקּוּץ‎, shiqquts, “detestable thing”; גִלּול‎, gilwl, “idol”), which may have been intended distortions of the Mesopotamian names Sakkuth and Kaiwan. However, not all scholars agree with this assessment.Unlike other stars, which were all related to major deities, Kaiwan was not an important Mesopotamian god. The Israelites’ adoption of this god for worship may have resulted from their association with the Assyrians after the fall of the northern kingdom.
Dictionaries
The Lexham Bible Dictionary
Kaiwan
Kaiwan (כִּיּוּן‎, kiyyun). Also spelled Kiyyun. The Mesopotamian name for Saturn, worshipped by the Mesopotamians as a god (Amos 5:26). The prophet Amos refers to “Sikkuth” and “Kiyyun,” but both names are vocalized in Hebrew according to words for idols (שִׁקּוּץ‎, shiqquts, “detestable thing”; גִלּול‎,
The Anchor Yale Bible Dictionary
Sakkuth and Kaiwan (Deities)
SAKKUTH AND KAIWAN (DEITIES) [Heb sikkût (סִכּוּת) and kiyyûn (כִּיּוּן)]. A name and epithet, respectively, of the planet Saturn (Amos 5:26). Because Saturn was the most distant of the planets known to the ancients, and hence the planet was the slowest and steadiest movement across the sky, it was
Baker Encyclopedia of the Bible
Chiun
Chiun. kjv form of Kaiwan, an Assyrian astral deity, in Amos 5:26.See Kaiwan.
Kaiwan
Kaiwan. Mesopotamian astral deity, called Chiun in the kjv (Am 5:26).See Sakkuth.
The International Standard Bible Encyclopedia, Revised
Kaiwan
Kaiwan kāʹwän, kīʹwän [Heb. kîyûn]; AV Chiun (following MT vocalization); NEB “pedestals” (relating kîyûn to kûn—‘be firm, establish’). The name of a god in Am. 5:26. The vocalization by the Masoretes is probably meant to draw the reader’s attention to the word siqqûṣ, “detested thing,” or
Tyndale Bible Dictionary
Chiun
CHIUN* kjv form of Kaiwan, an Assyrian astral deity, in Amos 5:26. See Kaiwan.
Kaiwan
KAIWAN Mesopotamian astral deity, called “Chiun” in the kjv and “Kiyyun” in the nasb (Am 5:26). See Sakkuth.
The New Bible Dictionary, Third Edition
Kaiwan
KAIWAN (Heb. kiyyûn), av CHIUN (Am. 5:26). Earlier scholars thought it meant ‘pedestal’ or ‘image-stand’ (see W. R. Harper, Amos, ICC, 1910, pp. 139f.). Vulg. has imaginem, rvmg. ‘shrine’. Most now believe that it represents Assyr. kaiwanu, a name of Ninurta, god of the planet Saturn, but that the
Eerdmans Dictionary of the Bible
Kaiwan
Kaiwan (Heb. kiyyûn; Akk. kayyamânu)The Babylonian name for the planet Saturn, which Amos calls a star-god (Amos. 5:26). Amos prophesied that since the Israelites worshipped a Babylonian deity God would send them to Babylon (presumably so they could be nearer the pagan god they wanted to worship).
Eerdmans Bible Dictionary
Kaiwan
Kaiwan [kīˊwən] (Heb. kiyyûn; Akk. kaywânu). The Babylonian name for the planet Saturn, which Amos calls a star-god (Amos. 5:26; NIV “pedestal”). Amos prophesied that since the Israelites worshipped a Babylonian deity God would send them to Babylon (presumably so they could be nearer the pagan
Dictionary of Deities and Demons in the Bible
Kaiwan
KAIWAN כיוןI. Kaiwan occurs under the form Kiyyûn in Amos 5:26, after Sikkût (→Sakkuth). The Masoretic vocalisation is that for idols →Abominations. The real pronunciation must have been Kaiwān, cf. Syr. Keywân (and variants), the name of the planet Saturn. Both go back to the Babylonian name for
Smith’s Bible Dictionary
Chiun
Chi´un (a statue, perhaps of Saturn), an idol made by the Israelites in the wilderness. [Remphan.]
The New Unger’s Bible Dictionary
Kiyyun
KIY´YUN (kiʹun). A word occurring in the Bible only in Amos 5:26. It is generally revocalized Kaiwan or Kewan, i.e., Saturn (Ninib). Apparently the Masoretes gave the vocalization of Shiqquṣ (“a detestable thing,” whence Kiyyun). KJV uses the word Chiun; RSV translates “Kaiwan your star god.” The NIV
Easton’s Bible Dictionary
Chiun
Chiunoccurs only in Amos 5:26 (R.V. marg., “shrine”). The LXX. translated the word by Rhephan, which became corrupted into Remphan, as used by Stephen (Acts 7:43; but R.V., “Rephan”). Probably the planet Saturn is intended by the name. Astrologers represented this planet as baleful in its influences,
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