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Excerpt from the Lexham Bible Dictionary, the most advanced Bible dictionary.
A small shrub. Its roots could be eaten or used for charcoal, and it provided shade (1 Kgs 19:4; Job 30:4 Psa 120:4).
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The Lexham Bible Dictionary
Baker Encyclopedia of the Bible
Besom. Old English word meaning “broom” (Is 14:23 kjv). The besom, or broom, of destruction is a Near Eastern metaphor signifying total destruction. It refers to the annihilation or “sweeping away” of Babylon by the Lord.
The International Standard Bible Encyclopedia, Revised
Tyndale Bible Dictionary
BESOM* Old English word meaning “broom” (Is 14:23, kjv). The besom, or broom, of destruction is a Near Eastern metaphor signifying total destruction. It refers to the annihilation or “sweeping away” of Babylon by the Lord.
The HarperCollins Bible Dictionary (Revised and Updated)
broom tree, a species of plant generally agreed to be Retama raetam, a shrublike growth usually 4 to 12 feet high, with deep roots suitable for the desert terrain it occupies. It flowers in the spring with small white blooms on twigs with small leaves. A broom tree provided Elijah shade (1 Kings 19:4–5);
The Wycliffe Bible Encyclopedia
BESOM. This word occurs only once in Scripture: “I will sweep it with the besom of destruction” (Isa 14:23). This refers to what was in store for Babylon. The Heb. word maṭ˒áte˒, rendered “besom,” is close of kin to the verb ṭē˒ṭē˒tı̂, rendered “I will sweep.” In early English “besom” was synonymous
Eerdmans Bible Dictionary
Broom Tree (Heb. rōṯem). A shrub or bush found in great numbers in the desert areas of Syria, Palestine, the Sinai, and Egypt, generally identified as the broom tree (Retama roetam [Forsk.]; KJV “juniper tree”).Though it hardly has any leaves, its many branches provide some shade for the traveler
Smith’s Bible Dictionary
Juniper, 1 Kings 19:4, 5; Job 30:4; Ps. 120:4, a sort of broom, Genista monosperma, G. rætam of Forskal, answering to the Arabic rethem. It is very abundant in the desert of Sinai, and affords shade and protection, in both heat and storm, to travellers. The rethem is a leguminous plant, and bears a white
The New Unger’s Bible Dictionary
Easton’s Bible Dictionary
Besom—the rendering of a Hebrew word meaning sweeper, occurs only in Isa. 14:23, of the sweeping away, the utter ruin, of Babylon.
Juniper—(Heb. rothem, called by the Arabs retem, and known as Spanish broom; ranked under the genus genista. It is a desert shrub, and abounds in many parts of Palestine. In the account of his journey from Akabah to Jerusalem, Dr. Robinson says: “This is the largest and most conspicuous shrub of these