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Julius Caesar
Excerpt from the Lexham Bible Dictionary, the most advanced Bible dictionary.
Roman general, politician, and author. Caesar’s career helped change Rome’s government from republic to empire in the first century before Christ. Julius Caesar’s great-nephew, Augustus, was considered to be the first emperor of Rome and ruled at the time of Jesus’ birth.Gaius Julius Caesar came from an old, noble Roman family. (“Julius” is his family name; “Caesar” identifies the branch of the ancient family he belonged to.) Prior to Gaius, Caesar’s family had only minor involvement in the politics of the republic of Rome. However, in his early 30s, Caesar began to climb Rome’s political latter. He presented himself as a populist and promised to better the lives of Roman citizens. The people elected him to various magistracies. He also served as the governor of Spain.In 60 bc, Caesar and two other men, Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus (Pompey) and Marcus Licinius Crassus, formed the “First Triumvirate.” This was an informal agreement in which these three wealthy and politically connected men agreed to control the various institutions of the Roman government. Each member brought different qualities: Pompey, a successful military commander, brought popularity and influence, Crassus, the richest man in Rome, provided money, and Caesar had ambition and political skill.Caesar became governor of Cisalpine Gaul, the territory south of the Alps, in 58 bc, and he spent the next nine years conquering the Gallic tribes north of the Alps and incorporating them into the Roman system. Caesar even campaigned briefly on the island of Britain in 55 and 54 bc. He wrote an account of his campaigns, Gallic Wars (or Bellum gallicum). His military successes increased his personal wealth and his political influence. His alliance with Pompey and Crassus, however, dissolved.In 53 bc, Crassus died fighting Parthians in the east, and Pompey began plotting with Caesar’s enemies in the city of Rome. Caesar wanted to run for consul (chief magistrate of Rome) in absentia for the year 49, but Pompey and Caesar’s enemies required that he disband his army and return to Rome first. Instead of returning to Rome as a private citizen, where he knew his enemies would try him for corruption, Caesar crossed into Italy with his army in 49 bc. Caesar fought civil wars against Pompey and Pompey’s sons for almost five years, but by the close of 45 bc, Caesar had defeated all opposition and had no political or military rivals.In February of 44 bc, the Roman people voted Caesar into the office of dictator for life, but his rule would be short-lived. A group of senators and other notable men of Rome conspired against Caesar and assassinated him on 15th of March, 44 bc. Octavian, Caesar’s great-nephew and heir, along with other men who wished to avenge Caesar’s memory, began a civil war against the assassins. After more than a decade of fighting, Octavian would find himself in a position similar to that of Caesar; he had no political or military rivals and was the undisputed leader of the Roman people. Octavian became Augustus, the first emperor of Rome, about 30 years before the birth of the Christ.
Dictionaries
The Lexham Bible Dictionary
Julius Caesar
Julius Caesar (100–44 bc). Roman general, politician, and author. Caesar’s career helped change Rome’s government from republic to empire in the first century before Christ. Julius Caesar’s great-nephew, Augustus, was considered to be the first emperor of Rome and ruled at the time of Jesus’ birth.Gaius
The Anchor Yale Bible Dictionary
Julius Caesar
JULIUS CAESAR. Perhaps the most celebrated personality of ancient Rome, Gaius Julius Caesar, as the first Roman emperor, laid the foundations of the aristocratic Roman Empire that ruled the Mediterranean area and much of Europe. The principal connected sources, apart from Caesar’s own writings, are Suetonius’
Compton’s Encyclopedia
Julius Caesar
Julius CaesarThe tragedy of Julius Caesar, a five-act play by William Shakespeare, dramatizes the death in 44 bc of the celebrated Roman general and statesman. Shakespeare’s portrayal of Caesar is an ambiguous one, stressing Caesar’s weaknesses as well as his noble qualities. The play also can be called
Caesar, Julius
Caesar, Julius(100?–44 bc). Assassins ended the career of Julius Caesar before he had finished his lifework. But what he accomplished made him one of the few individuals who changed the course of history. Some historians consider him Rome’s greatest genius. He was a soldier of remarkable ability, an
Ecclesiastical Dictionary: Containing, in Concise Form, Information upon Ecclesiastical, Biblical, Archæological, and Historical Subjects
Cæsar
Cæsar.—Originally the surname of the Julian family at Rome. After being dignified in the person of Julius Cæsar, it became the usual appellation of those of the family who ascended the Roman throne. The last of these was Nero; but the name was still retained by his successors, as a species of title belonging
Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology, Volumes I–III
CAESAR
CAESAR, the name of a patrician family of the Julia gens, which was one of the most ancient in the Roman state, and traced its origin to Iulus, the son of Aeneas. [Julia Gens.] It is uncertain which member of this gens first obtained the surname of Caesar, but the first who occurs in history is Sex.
All the People in the Bible: An A–Z Guide to the Saints, Scoundrels, and Other Characters in Scripture
Julius the Centurion
Julius the CenturionIn the book of Acts, Luke pays a great deal of attention to the pagan Julius, a Roman centurion of an imperial regiment (Acts 27:1).1 Perhaps this was to signify that friendship and kindness were not exclusive attributes of Christians.In Acts 27 we are told that when Paul was on
The New Interpreter’s Dictionary of the Bible, Volumes 1–5
CAESAR, JULIUS
CAESAR, JULIUS see´zuhr, joo´lee-uhs [Lat. Gaius Iulius Caesar]. Gaius Julius Caesar (100–44 bce) was a politician, general, and (according to law and popular devotion) deity. Caesar’s solution to the collapse of Rome’s republican government in bloody civil war was military dictatorship based on his