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Jewish Revolts
Excerpt from the Lexham Bible Dictionary, the most advanced Bible dictionary.
The Jewish Revolts against Rome (sometimes called the Jewish Wars). A series of armed conflicts, small scale and large, between the Jews and the Romans that spanned almost two centuries. They provide the overall historical background for understanding the New Testament texts.The Roman Empire controlled Israel’s territories from 63 bc into the fourth century ad (Goodman, Rome and Jerusalem; Johnson, History of the Jews). Apart from the Graeco-Roman dominance, this period of Israel’s history was characterized by substantial internal divisions, with groups including: Pharisees, Sadducees, Essenes, Qumranites, Hellenists, Herodians, Samaritans, Proselytes, Galilean and Diaspora Jews (Josephus, Antiquities XVIII 1.2–6; Eusebius, Ecclesiastical History IV 22.7; Justin Martyr, Dialogue with Trypho 80; see also Mark 3:6; Acts 6:1; 2:11; 9:29; Luke 10:25–37; 17:11–19; John 4:1–40). Roman rule also precipitated the emergence of newly organized nationalistic revolutionary groups. According to Josephus, a radical Jewish movement of Zealots (ζηλωταὶ, zēlōtai/קַנָאִים‎, qana'im) believed that political and religious freedom for Israel should be achieved by any means necessary (Josephus, Antiquities XVIII. 1.6). Zealots, and among them the Sicarii (σικάριοι, sikarioi), were known for violent opposition to Rome (Acts 21:28). Unmoved even by death, they were responsible for much of the unrest during this period (Johnson, History of the Jews; Scheindlin, Short History; Schäfer, History of the Jews).
Dictionaries
The Lexham Bible Dictionary
Jewish Revolts
Jewish Revolts The Jewish Revolts against Rome (sometimes called the Jewish Wars). A series of armed conflicts, small scale and large, between the Jews and the Romans that spanned almost two centuries. They provide the overall historical background for understanding the New Testament texts.The Roman
Eerdmans Dictionary of the Bible
Jewish Revolts
Jewish RevoltsThroughout history those people under the subjugation of others will normally revolt to throw off their oppressors when possible. The Jewish people were under the domination of one of the great Near Eastern powers through much of their history, even during the period of the Israelite monarchy.
Eerdmans Bible Dictionary
Jewish Revolts
Jewish Revolts. *Armed revolts by Jews against the Roman Empire in Palestine in A.D. 66–74 and 132–135 and in Mesopotamia, Cyrenaica, Egypt, and Cyprus in 115–117.
Dictionary of Jesus and the Gospels
Revolutionary Movements
Revolutionary movementsRevolutionary movements were a response of some Jews to the injustice of Israel’s* oppressors, particularly the Roman Empire (see Rome). The first century was one of the most violent epochs of Jewish history, with the cauldron of unrest reaching its apex in the destruction of
Dictionary of New Testament Background
Jewish Wars with Rome
JEWISH WARS WITH ROMEFor many centuries after the fall of the first temple and the end of the kingdom of Judah, the Jews seem to have been essentially peaceful under the rule of various Near Eastern empires. Perhaps the reason is that they had no other choice: rebellion would have gained nothing. There
Revolutionary Movements, Jewish
REVOLUTIONARY MOVEMENTS, JEWISHRevolutionary movements were a Jewish response to the injustice of Israel’s oppressors, particularly the Roman Empire. The first century was one of the most violent epochs of Jewish history, with the cauldron of unrest reaching its apex in the destruction of Jerusalem
The Zondervan Encyclopedia of the Bible, Volume 5, Q–Z
Wars, Jewish
wars, Jewish. The general causes of the two Jewish wars against the Romans, in A.D. 66–70 and 132–135, lay in at least four factors. There was in Israel a long tradition that combined religious zeal and violence. The priest Phinehas exercised his zeal for the Lord by killing a sinning Hebrew man and
Dictionary of Jesus and the Gospels, Second Edition
Revolutionary Movements
REVOLUTIONARY MOVEMENTSRevolutionary movements were a Jewish response to the injustice of *Israel’s oppressors. Although the Maccabean Revolt (168/7–164 b.c.) can be seen as an important precursor for the later revolutionary movements by the Jews, this article concentrates on the Jewish resistance movements
The New Interpreter’s Dictionary of the Bible, Volumes 1–5
JEWISH WARS
JEWISH WARS. The period from 66 to 135 ce saw three major Jewish revolts against Roman rule. According to the Jewish historian Flavius Josephus, the first, sometimes referred to as the Great Revolt or simply the Jewish War, began in 66 ce after a period of escalating tensions in Judea (see JOSEPHUS,