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Jesus is questioned about paying taxes
Excerpt from the Lexham Bible Dictionary, the most advanced Bible dictionary.
The practice of imposing duty or payment upon an individual for the benefit of others; can take the form of currency, produce, or labor.The earliest historical records indicate that the collection of taxes for the common good was present among the most ancient civilizations. Israel, too, had a long history of requiring its members to support its priests, the building of its most holy shrines, and its kings. Moreover, periods of “rest” were mandated—the net effect of which was that the poor, the foreigner, and even the beasts of the field could “glean” from the largess of the more fortunate. In between these times of rest, the industrious were not allowed to harvest “wall to wall,” enabling the less fortunate to literally live on the margins. Furthermore, the Year of Jubilee broke up the stranglehold of extended monopolies, allowing heirs to regain the wealth of their ancestors. Even though nearly all of these offerings, sacrifices, and withholdings are steeped in the language of worship and devotion, functionally they constitute taxation in Israel.
Dictionaries
The Lexham Bible Dictionary
Taxation
Taxation The practice of imposing duty or payment upon an individual for the benefit of others; can take the form of currency, produce, or labor.The earliest historical records indicate that the collection of taxes for the common good was present among the most ancient civilizations. Israel, too, had
The Anchor Yale Bible Dictionary
Taxes and Taxation
TAXES AND TAXATION. The revenues received by governments in money, in kind, or in labor; the process of extracting those revenues.Taxation is extremely important to the state, and the state cannot be said to exist in its fullest form if it has no taxing power. In the states about which we are informed
Baker Encyclopedia of the Bible
Tax, Taxation
Tax, Taxation. Amount of money or goods that was extracted by the powerful nations from those whom they subjected. It commonly consisted of gold, silver, animals, produce, or forced labor. Taxes were also levied on the people both by their ruler and by the priesthood to pay for the maintenance of the
The International Standard Bible Encyclopedia, Revised
Tax; Tribute
Tax; Tribute Tribute is a contribution, either compulsory or voluntary, given by persons, nations, or kings who have been subjugated by another power in recognition either of their subservience or of a king’s position or outstanding qualities. Taxation, in the sense of a compulsory contribution levied
Tyndale Bible Dictionary
Tax, Taxation
TAX, TAXATION Amount of money or goods that was extracted by the powerful nations from those whom they subjected. It commonly consisted of gold, silver, animals, produce, or forced labor. Taxes were also levied on the people both by their ruler and by the priesthood to pay for the maintenance of the
The HarperCollins Bible Dictionary (Revised and Updated)
Tax, Toll
tax, toll. The most precise information regarding taxation in the biblical world pertains to the Roman period, though taxes were certainly in effect before then.The institution of the Israelite monarchy probably brought a system of more or less regularized taxation. The census David took when he became
The Wycliffe Bible Encyclopedia
Tax, Taxes
TAX, TAXES. In patriarchal times, for the semi-nomadic Hebrews taxation was spasmodic. Instead, voluntary gifts were made in return for protection or other advantage (Gen 32:13–21; 33:10; 43:11; cf. 1 Sam 10:27). Because of the severe famine in Egypt during Joseph’s term of office as vizier, he bought
Taxing
TAXING. Used twice in the KJV (Lk 2:2; Acts 5:37), the word means the formal registration and enrollment of population and property. Census is probably a current equivalent. It was the first step toward complete statistical returns in the empire.Lk 2:1 refers the taxing to the decree of Caesar Augustus,
The New Bible Dictionary, Third Edition
Taxes
TAXES. Regular payments extracted from a state and its provinces by its own rulers are taxes, distinct from wealth received from conquered states which is *tribute.In Israel’s infancy the only taxes required were to maintain the tabernacle and its ministers, a practice renewed after the Exile (Dt. 18:1–5;
Eerdmans Dictionary of the Bible
Tax
TaxWide variations existed in the ways that governments secured revenues for their operation in ancient times, including fees, fines, rents, and property, personal, and travel taxes. The most direct form of governmental acquisition of resources was forced labor (Heb. mas), the conscription of laborers
Eerdmans Bible Dictionary
Tax
Tax (Heb. nouns maś˒ēṯ, middâ, verb hiphil ˓āraḵ “assess the value of”; Aram. nouns mindâ, belô, halāḵ; Gk. nouns phóros, kḗnsos, pl. télē).†Payments in kind and forced labor were very much part of life in the ancient Near East. Pharaoh placed a levy on the people of Egypt in
The Archaeological Encyclopedia of the Holy Land
Taxes; Taxation
TAXES; TAXATION Both the Canaanite kings and the Egyptian authorities collected taxes from early times, as is well attested by the El Amarna letters, the Taanach tablets and also by some allusions in the Bible (1 Sam 8:11–17). There was no taxation during the period of the conquest of Canaan by the Israelite
Dictionary of Jesus and the Gospels
Taxes
TaxesJews in the time of Jesus were subject to a complex system of religious and secular taxation, the extent and burden of which is difficult to determine. The Gospels reveal the scorn directed toward those who participated especially in the Roman customs system because they were presumed to be dishonest.
Key passages
Mt 22:15–22

Then the Pharisees went and consulted so that they could entrap him with a statement. And they sent their disciples to him with the Herodians, saying, “Teacher, we know that you are truthful and teach the way of God in truth, and you do not care what anyone thinks, …

Mk 12:13–17

And they sent some of the Pharisees and the Herodians to him so that they could catch him unawares in a statement. And when they came, they said to him, “Teacher, we know that you are truthful and you do not care what anyone thinks, because you do not regard the opinion …

Lk 20:20–26

And they watched him closely and sent spies who pretended they were upright, in order that they could catch him in a statement, so that they could hand him over to the authority and the jurisdiction of the governor. And they asked him, saying, “Teacher, we know that you …