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Jerusalem
Dictionaries
The Lexham Bible Dictionary
Jerusalem
Jerusalem (יְרוּשָׁלַםִ‎, yerushalami). The capital city of biblical Israel, and later of the southern kingdom of Judah. The central location for Israel’s self-understanding of life under God.
Jerusalem, Critical Issues
Jerusalem, Archaeology of Introduction to the archaeological data concerning Jerusalem in the Middle Bronze Age and the Iron Age.
Ariel
Ariel (אֲרִיאֵל‎, ari'el). A poetic name for Jerusalem used in Isa 29:1–2, 7.The term seems to be derived from Hebrew אֲרִי‎ (ariy) “lion” and אֵל‎ (el) “god,” literally meaning “lion of God.” This interpretation is supported by 2 Sam 23:20, where it refers to a warrior or champion (i.e., a lion-like man).
Jebus
Jebus (יְבוּס‎, yevus). The city of the Jebusites. A designation for Jerusalem. Located in the hill country of Judah.
Oholibah
Oholibah (אָ֒הלִיבָה‎, ohlivah). The insulting name Ezekiel gives to Jerusalem and Judah because of their alliances with Egypt, Assyria, and Babylon (Ezek 23:4). Jerusalem is personified as an unfaithful wife because the kingdom of Judah had put its faith in foreign powers rather than in Yahweh. “Oholibah”
Salem
Salem (שָׁלֵם‎, shalem). Melchizedek’s city—probably another name for Jerusalem (Gen 14:18; Heb 7:1–2; compare Psa 76:2). Salem was probably near the Valley of Shaveh (Gen 14:17). According to Josephus, the Jews believed Salem to be the same as Jerusalem (Antiquities 1.10.2). This identification of Salem
Zion
Zion (צִיּוֹן‎, tsiyyon). A location near the Old City of Jerusalem. Comes to signify the city itself and the eschatological hope of God’s dwelling with His people.
The Anchor Yale Bible Dictionary
Jerusalem (Place)
JERUSALEM (PLACE) [Heb yĕrûšālayim (יְרוּשָׁלַיִם)]. Pliny the Elder described Jerusalem as “by far the most renowned city of the ancient East” (HN V:14). Jerusalem is best known as the “holy city” (Isa 52:1), sacred to the three great monotheistic religions. Few subjects have generated so large
Ariel (Place)
ARIEL (PLACE) [Heb ʾarı̂ʾēl (אַרִיאֵל)]. When used to refer to a place, Ariel is a descriptive term applied to the city of Jerusalem: “Ho Ariel, Ariel, the city where David encamped”; “Yet I will distress Ariel …”; “And the multitudes of all the nations that fight against Ariel …” (Isa 29:1, 2, 7).
David, City of (Place)
DAVID, CITY OF (PLACE) [Heb ʿı̂r (עִיר‎) dāwı̂d (דָּוִיד)]. A term appearing in the OT which refers both to the Jebusite “Stronghold of Zion” (mĕṣudat ṣı̂yyôn), captured, occupied, and renamed by David (2 Sam 5:6–9), and to the burial ground in which at least nine Judean kings were interred (e.g.,
Hasrah (Person)
HASRAH (PERSON) [Heb ḥasrā (חַסְרָהָ)]. Var. HARHAS. 1. Grandfather of Shallum, the husband of Huldah the prophetess (2 Chr 34:22 [ chellēs]). Harhas, a variant form of the name, appears in the parallel text of 2 Kgs 22:14.2. A temple servant who was the progenitor of a family which returned from
Jebus (Place)
JEBUS (PLACE) [Heb yĕbûs (יְבוּס)]. JEBUSITE. The name of the city where the Jebusites lived, which is used as the pre-Israelite name for Jerusalem.A. Relationship and Use of TermsB. Use in Lists of NationsC. Ethnic OriginD. Geographic LocationE. Historical DataA. Relationship and Use of Terms
Salem (Place)
SALEM (PLACE) [Heb šālēm (שָׁלֵם)]. The city of Melchizedek in Gen 14:18. Psalm 76:3—Eng 76:2 uses “Salem” in parallelism with “Zion,” thus equating it with Jerusalem. The Genesis Apocryphon from Qumran (1QapGen 22:13) glosses šlm with hyʾ rws̆lm, “that is, Jerusalem,” and Tg. Onq., Tg. Neof., and
Zion (Place)
ZION (PLACE) [Heb ṣiyyôn (צִיֹּון)]. An ancient name for various parts of Jerusalem, of Judah and all the land, and also a metaphor for the people of God, at various periods, from biblical times to the modern period. See ZION TRADITIONS.A. Origin and Meaning of the NameThe exact meaning of the name
Baker Encyclopedia of the Bible
Jerusalem
Jerusalem. Historic city sacred to Christians, Jews, and Muslims; the chief city of ancient Palestine and of the modern state of Israel.
Aholibah
Aholibah. kjv form of Oholibah, the symbolic name for Jerusalem in Ezekiel 23.See Oholah, Oholibah.
Ariel (Place)
Ariel (Place). Poetic designation for Jerusalem, used by the prophet Isaiah in a “woe” oracle warning people to turn from their wrongdoing (Is 29:1, 2, 7). Jerusalem, location of the altar of burnt offering, was called Ariel (“hearth of God”) by synecdoche, a poetic device in which a whole thing is referred
City of David
City of David. 1. Southeastern hill (Ophel) in the present-day city of Jerusalem, the site occupied by King David as his royal city; also called Zion (e.g., 1 Kgs 8:1). David captured the Jebusite fortress of Jerusalem and transferred his capital to it from Hebron (2 Sm 5:1–10).See Jerusalem.2. Alternate
David, City of
David, City of. 1. In the OT, the city of Jerusalem. “City of David” referred originally to the old Jebusite stronghold captured by King David (2 Sm 5:6–9). David, Solomon, and many of their descendants who ruled over Judah were buried in the city of David (1 Kgs 2:10; 11:43). Solomon considered it a
Jebus, Jebusi, Jebusite
Jebus, Jebusi, Jebusite. Walled city, lying on the boundary between Judah and Benjamin, conquered by David; thereafter it was known as the “city of David,” or ancient Jerusalem. Its occupants were Jebusites (kjv Jebusi, Jos 18:16). They were one of the several clans or tribes collectively known as Canaanites
Oholah, Oholibah
Oholah, Oholibah. Names given to the northern kingdom (kjv Aholah), with its capital at Samaria, and to the southern kingdom (kjv Aholibah), with its capital at Jerusalem, respectively, by Ezekiel in his allegory depicting the unfaithfulness of God’s people (ch 23). The daughters of one woman, Israel,
Salem
Salem. City from which the priest-king Melchizedek came (Gn 14:18; Ps 76:2; Heb 7:1, 2). Salem is believed to be an ancient name of Jerusalem.See Jerusalem.
Sion
Sion. 1. kjv designation for Mt Hermon in Deuteronomy 4:48.See Hermon, Mount.2. kjv form of Zion in Psalm 65:1 and in the NT.See Zion.
Zion
Zion. Term also spelled Sion in kjv occuring over 150 times in the OT. It appears first as one of the names of the Jebusite fortress conquered by David. During subsequent biblical and postbiblical history, Zion was applied to other areas of Jerusalem and could be used as a designation of the entire city.
The International Standard Bible Encyclopedia, Revised
Jerusalem
Jerusalem jə-roo̅ʹsə-ləm:-l:m [Heb. yerûšālayim, yerûšālēm—‘city of wholeness’; Gk. Ierosalēm, Hierosolyma]. The principal city of ancient Israel, location of the temple, capital of the kingdom of Judah, chief city of nascent Judaism, the city where Jesus Christ was tried and crucified,
Ariel (Place)
2. A cryptic name for Jerusalem (Isa. 29:1f, 7) as the principal stronghold of divine worship.
City of Chaos
City of Chaos [Heb. qiryaṯ-tōhû] (Isa. 24:10); AV CITY OF CONFUSION. A name applied to Jerusalem.
Hasrah (exile)
2. In 1 Esd. 5:31 (AV AZARA, NEB ASARA), the head of a family returning to Jerusalem with Zerubbabel. His name is omitted in the par passages (Ezr. 2:49; Neh. 7:51).
Hephzibah
Hephzibah hefʹzi-ba [Heb. ḥep̱ṣî-bāh—‘my delight is in her’].1. LXX Hopseiba, Hapseiba, Hophsiba; the wife of Hezekiah and the mother of Manasseh (2 K. 21:1).2. The new name of Zion (Isa. 62:4, AV, NEB, RSV mg); LXX translates Gk. thélēma emón, “my delight” (cf. the RSV).
Jebus
Jebus jēʹbəs JEBUSITE jebʹyə-sīt [Heb. yeḇûs; hayeḇûsî]; AV JEBUSI (Josh. 18:16, 28). The name “Jebusite” described an ethnic group living in the uplands of Canaan (Nu. 13:29; Josh. 11:3) near Jerusalem (Josh. 15:8; 18:16). A comparatively small clan, they claimed descent from the third son
Oholibah
Oholibah ō-hoĺi-bâ [Heb ʾoholîḇâ—‘my tent is in her’ (?)] (Ezk. 23:4, 11, 22, 36, 44): AV AHOLIBAH. An opprobrious and symbolic name given by Ezekiel to Jerusalem (23:4) in an allegory depicting Judah’s unfaithfulness to Yahweh and the judgment that awaited her. Like her sister Oholah (Samaria),
Salem
Salem sāʹləm [Heb. šālēm—“complete, secure, peaceful”; Gk. Salēm]. The name of the city of which Melchizedek was king (Gen. 14:18; He. 7:1f.). In view of the parallelism of Salem and Zion in Ps. 76:2 (MT 3), there can be little doubt that at the time this psalm was composed Jewish tradition identified
Zion
Zion zīʹən [Heb. ṣîyôn; Gk. Siōn]; AV also SION. An ancient name attached to different sites within Jerusalem in various periods of the city’s history. I. Origin II. Semantic Development in the OTA. Geographical DesignationI. Jebusite FortressII. Temple MountIII. JerusalemB. Soteriological
Tyndale Bible Dictionary
Jerusalem
JERUSALEM Historic city sacred to Christians, Jews, and Muslims; the chief city of ancient Palestine and of the modern state of Israel.PreviewMeaning of the NameGeographical SituationHistoryMeaning of the NameEgyptian Meaning The earliest mention of the name occurs in the Egyptian Execration
Aholibah
AHOLIBAH* kjv form of Oholibah, the symbolic name for Jerusalem in Ezekiel 23. See Oholah and Oholibah.
Ariel (Place)
ARIEL (Place) Poetic designation for Jerusalem, used by the prophet Isaiah in a “woe” oracle warning people to turn from their wrongdoing (Is 29:1–2, 7). Jerusalem, location of the altar of burnt offering, was called Ariel (“hearth of God”) by synecdoche, a poetic device in which a whole thing is referred
City of David
CITY OF DAVID1. Southeastern hill (Ophel) in the present-day city of Jerusalem, the site occupied by King David as his royal city; also called Zion (e.g., 1 Kgs 8:1). David captured the Jebusite fortress of Jerusalem and transferred his capital to it from Hebron (2 Sm 5:1–10). See Jerusalem.2. Alternate
David, City of
DAVID, CITY OF1. In the OT, the city of Jerusalem. “City of David” referred originally to the old Jebusite stronghold captured by King David (2 Sm 5:6–9). David, Solomon, and many of their descendants who ruled over Judah were buried in the City of David (1 Kgs 2:10; 11:43). Solomon considered it a
Jebus
JEBUS, JEBUSITE Walled city, lying on the boundary between Judah and Benjamin, conquered by David; thereafter, it was known as the “city of David,” or ancient Jerusalem. Its occupants were Jebusites (Jos 18:16). They were one of the several clans or tribes collectively known as Canaanites (Gn 10:15–16).
Oholah and Oholibah
OHOLAH AND OHOLIBAH Names given to the northern kingdom (kjv “Aholah”), with its capital at Samaria, and to the southern kingdom (kjv “Aholibah”), with its capital at Jerusalem, respectively, by Ezekiel in his allegory depicting the unfaithfulness of God’s people (Ez 23). The names characterized the
Salem
SALEM City from which the priest-king Melchize- dek came (Gn 14:18; Ps 76:2; Heb 7:1–2). Salem is believed to be an ancient name of Jerusalem. See Jerusalem.
Sion
SION*1. kjv designation for Mt Hermon in Deuteronomy 4:48. See Hermon, Mount.2. kjv form of Zion in Psalm 65:1 and in the NT. See Zion.
Zion
ZION The Jebusite fortress in Jerusalem conquered by David. Thereafter, Zion was used by biblical writers to identify other areas of Jerusalem and was used as a designation of the entire city. Zion was also used to describe, spiritually speaking, the eternal city of God.Geographical SitesThe Jebusite
The HarperCollins Bible Dictionary (Revised and Updated)
Jerusalem
JerusalemTopography: Situated on the crest of the Judean mountains some twenty miles west of the Dead Sea’s northern end and thirty miles east of the Mediterranean Sea, the biblical city of Jerusalem (ji-roo´suh-luhm) was built over two hills ranging from 2,300 to 2,500 feet above sea level and surrounded
Ariel
Ariel (air´ee-uhl; Heb., “altar hearth” or “heroes”).1 One of the leading men summoned by Ezra and sent by him to secure ministers for the temple (Ezra 8:16).2 According to the nrsv, a Moabite man in 2 Sam. 23:20 (1 Chron. 11:22) whose two sons were slain by David’s champion warrior Benaiah. Some English
David, City Of
David, City of, the name given to the part of Jerusalem that was the Jebusite city, after its capture by David (2 Sam. 5). This oldest part of Jerusalem, which had been an urban site since the early third millennium bce, was located in the southeastern part of present-day Jerusalem on a land peninsula
Jebus
Jebus (jee´buhs), a village in central Canaan. The Jebusites were children of Canaan (Gen. 10:16). Jebus is not mentioned in ancient Near Eastern texts outside the Bible and the origin of the city remains obscure. Nevertheless, it is clear from the references to the Jebusites that they were a powerful
Oholah, Oholibah
Oholah (oh-hoh´luh; Heb., “she of the tent”), Oholibah (oh-hohl´i-bah; “my tent is in her”), the names of the allegorical sisters spoken of in Ezek. 23; Oholah represents Samaria and Oholibah represents Jerusalem. After a youth of prostitution with the Egyptians, Oholah turned her lust upon the Assyrians
Salem
Salem (say´luhm; Heb., “peace”), the locality over which Melchizedek was king (Gen. 14:18), frequently identified with Jerusalem. The latter identification is specifically made in Ps. 76:2, where Salem is used in parallelism with Zion as the dwelling place of God. Later writers, including Josephus, also
Zion
Zion (zi´uhn), an ancient name for the temple, Jerusalem, Judah, and the people of God. According to 2 Sam. 5:6–10, David and his men took Jerusalem from the Jebusites, apparently climbing through a water tunnel or shaft and opening the city gate from the inside. The text states that “David took the
The Wycliffe Bible Encyclopedia
Jerusalem
JERUSALEM. This city has been aptly called the “spiritual capital of the world,”. judgment underscored by the United Nations’ resolution of 1947 to designate it an international holy city. To students of the Bible and of history it is perhaps the world’s most fascinating community, being one the world’s
Ariel
ARIEL1. The hearth of the altar of burnt offering in Ezekiel’s temple (Ezk 43:15–16). See Hearth.2. A leader whom Ezra sent to Casiphia, presumably a Babylonian Levitical settlement, to seek ministers for the temple (Ezr 8:16–17).3. A symbolic name for Jerusalem (Isa 29:1–2, 7). Its usage favors the
City of David
CITY OF DAVID1. This name is applied to the most ancient section of Jerusalem, the SE hill of Jerusalem also called Mount Zion. The Jebusite fortress which stood here was conquered by David, who then moved his capital from Hebron and built a new palace and citadel (2 Sam 5:7, 9; 1 Chr 11:5, 7). He made
City of God
CITY OF GOD1. A term used to describe Jerusalem (Ps 46:4; 48:1, 8). It was the city which God chose to be His habitation among the tribes of Israel (Deut 12:5). See Jerusalem.2. This term is used also to describe heaven, or the New Jerusalem (Heb 11:10; 12:21; Rev 3:12; 21; 22). See Jerusalem, New.
Jebus
JEBUS, JEBUSITES. Jebus refers in the OT to a name for pre-Davidic Jerusalem (Josh 15:8; 18:28; Jdg 19:10; 1 Chr 11:4), derived from the clan name of its inhabitants who occupied the site during most of the 2nd mil. b.c. (although “Jebusite” is used also of their descendants in later times; cf. (1 Kgs
Salem
SALEM. The city, whose name means “peace,” was ruled by Melchizedek to whom Abraham paid tithes (Gen 14:18; Heb 7:1–2). It is usually identified with Jerusalem after Josephus (Ant. 1.10.2) and with the Jebusite city on the border between Judah and Benjamin, which was captured by Joab and became the “city
Sion, Mount
SION, MOUNT1. One of the names by which Mount Hermon was anciently called (Deut 4:48). The Sidonians called Mount Hermon “Sirion” and the Amorites called it “Shenir” (Deut 3:9).2. The Gr. form for Mount Zion (Jerusalem) appearing in Ps 65:1; Heb 12:22; and Rev 14:1 of the KJV. Elsewhere it is “Mount
Zion
ZION. name applied to Jerusalem or portions thereof since the time of David. Because usage of the word has changed during the succeeding centuries, considerable uncertainty persists as to its precise location. Originally it designated a Jebusite fortress located on the SE spur of th hill at the junction
The New Bible Dictionary, Third Edition
Ariel
ARIEL (Heb. ’arî’ēl, ‘hearth of El [God]’). 1. A name for the altar of burnt-offering described by Ezekiel (43:15–16). Several interpretations of this name have been given; ‘altar-hearth’ (rv); ‘mount of God’ (cf. Ezk. 43:15–16) or, less likely, ‘Lion of God’. In this sense ’r’l is named on the *Moabite
Oholibamah, Oholah, Oholibah
OHOLIBAMAH, OHOLAH, OHOLIBAH. Oholibamah was an Edomite name used for both men and women. It was the name of *Esau‘s second wife, a Canaanite woman, daughter of Anah and mother of Jeush, Jalam and Korah (Gn. 36:1–28). There was also an Edomite chief of this name (Gn. 36:41; 1 Ch. 1:52) which means ‘tent
Salem
SALEM. The place where Melchizedek ruled (Gn. 14:18; Heb. 8) near the valley of Shaveh (Gn. 14:17; explained as ‘the King’s Valley’). It is mentioned in parallel with Zion (Ps. 76:2). Following Jos. (Ant. 1.180), it is usually identified with the ancient site of *Jerusalem, the city of Salem, 2 of the
Sion
SION. A synonym for, or part of, Mt Hermon (Dt. 4:48, av; cf. rsvmg.). It is probably another form of ‘Sirion’ (Dt. 3:9); indeed, Pesh. reads ‘Sirion’ here, as also do rsv, neb. A different word from ‘Zion’.J. D. Douglas.
Eerdmans Dictionary of the Bible
Jerusalem
Jerusalem (Heb. yĕrûšālayim)The primary city of ancient Israel, capital of Judah and the United Monarchy.
Ariel (Place)
Ariel (Heb. ʾărɩ̂ʾel) (PLACE)A cryptic name designating Jerusalem (Isa. 29:1–2, 7) in an oracle concerning both the siege and preservation of the city. The Hebrew term may here designate the hearth of an altar (cf. 1QIsaa; Ezek. 43:15–16).
City of Chaos
City of ChaosAn epithet (Heb. qiryaṯ-tōhû) for a city of sinners (Isa. 24:10), most commonly assumed to be Jerusalem but possibly Babylon, Samaria, Tyre, or a symbolic city of evil.
David, City Of
David, City ofThe site David took from the Jebusites and made the capital of all the tribes, “the stronghold of Zion” (2 Sam. 5:7, 9). Located in neutral territory between the northern and southern tribes, it became both the political and religious center unifying David’s rule, and here he brought the
Hasrah
Hasrah (Heb. ḥasrâ) (also HARHAS)1. The grandfather of Shallum (2 Chr. 34:22). At 2 Kgs. 22:14 the name appears as Harhas.2. The head of a family who returned to Jerusalem with Zerubbabel following the Exile (1 Esdr. 5:31; Gk. Asara). The name is omitted in the parallel accounts (Ezra 2:49; Neh.
Jebus
Jebus (Heb. yĕḇûs)Pre-Israelite Jerusalem, the city David captured from the Jebusites (2 Sam. 5:6–9). The name, found only in Judg. 19:10–11; 1 Chr. 11:4–5, was perhaps derived from that of the clan that occupied the site prior to Israelite occupation. The Hebrew term means “to tread down” or “to
Salem
Salem (Heb. šālēm)The city where Melchizedek was king (Gen. 14:18; cf. Heb. 7:2). It is identified with Zion in Ps. 76:2 (MT 3), hence, Jerusalem—a tradition that was widespread in antiquity. It is likely that the early vocalization of Jerusalem was yerûšālēm. Targ. Onkelos, Neofiti, and Pseudo-Jonathan
Zion
Zion (Heb. ṣɩ̂yôn; Gk. Sîn)An ancient name for various aspects of Jerusalem, Judah, and the whole country, and also a metaphor for the people of Yahweh. The original meaning of the term is uncertain. Possible suggestions include a rock, stronghold, a dry place, or running water.The name Zion was
Eerdmans Bible Dictionary
Jerusalem
Jerusalem [jə rōōˊ sə ləm] (Heb. yerûšālayim, yerûšālēm “city of peace, wholeness [or “Salem”]”).† The city of David, capital of Judah and the united monarchy; holy city of Judaism, Christianity, and Islam.
Ariel (Place)
ARIEL [ârˊĭ əl] (Heb. ˒arî˒el “lion of God” [?]) (PLACE). A cryptic name designating Jerusalem (Isa. 29:1–2, 7) in an oracle concerning both the siege and preservation of the city. The Hebrew term may here designate the hearth of an altar (1 QIsaa reads Heb. ˒arû˒el “altar hearth”; cf. Ezek.
City of Chaos
City of Chaos (Heb. qiryaṯ-tōhû). An epithet for a city of sinners (Isa. 24:10; KJV “city of confusion”; NIV “ruined city”; JB “city of emptiness”), most commonly assumed to be Jerusalem but possibly Babylon, Samaria, Tyre, or a symbolic city of evil.
David, City of
David, City of (Heb. ˓îr dāwîḏ).† The fortified city (“stronghold of Zion,” 2 Sam. 5:7, 9 par. 1 Chr. 11:5, 7) which David took from the Jebusites after having become king over all twelve tribes. It was later renamed Jerusalem.Although Joshua had been able to defeat the king of Jerusalem,
Jebus
Jebus [jĕˊ bôôs, jēˊbəs] (Heb. yebû̱s).† A Canaanite town, seized by David as the site for his capital and renamed Jerusalem (Josh. 18:28; Judg. 19:10; 1 Chr. 11:4; cf. 2 Sam. 5:6). The name may derive from a clan which constituted the city’s pre-Israelite inhabitants, reckoned among the descendants
Oholibah
Oholibah [ō hōˊlĭ bə] (Heb. ˒oholîbâ “my tent is in her”). A name given to Jerusalem in the allegory of Ezek 23 (KJV “Aholibah”). The younger of two sisters, Oholibah continued in her corruption and adultery (vv. 11–21). Therefore Yahweh would turn Oholibah over to her lovers for punishment,
Salem
Salem [sāˊləm] (Heb. šālēm “safe, whole, peaceful.”). The domain of King Melchizedek (Gen. 14:18), later identified with Jerusalem (Ps. 76:2 [MT 3] par. “Zion”). The Valley of Shaveh, the King’s Valley (Gen. 14:17–18), where Melchizedek met Abraham after the Hebrew had defeated Chedorlaomer
Zion
Zion [zīˊən] (Heb. ṣîyôn; Gk. Siōn).† The eastern-most of the ridges on which Jerusalem is built, adjacent to the Kidron valley and the Spring Gihon. “The stronghold of Zion” was a name for the Jebusite fortress city that David conquered (2 Sam. 5:7; 1 Chr. 11:5), subsequently known as the
The Archaeological Encyclopedia of the Holy Land
Jerusalem
JERUSALEMthe canaanite and israelite citythe site The principal remains of biblical Jerusalem have been uncovered on the City of David, the hill overlooking the Gihon Spring (the Virgin’s Fountain in the Kidron Valley. This section of the City of David is bordered on the north by the Temple Mount,
Jebus; Jebusites
JEBUS; JEBUSITES One of the peoples that inhabited Jerusalem in ancient times. According to Genesis (10:16) the Jebusites were part of Canaan. They dwelt in Jerusalem and named their city Jebus (Judg. 19:10–11). During the conquest of Canaan Joshua was unable to take the city and the surrounding land
Salem, Shalem
SALEM, SHALEM a) The city of Melchizedek (Gen. 14:18), possibly named after a deity mentioned in documents of Ugarit and Mesopotamia. Identified by Jewish tradition with Jerusalem.b) A place near Shechem, where Jacob built an altar to God (Gen. 33:18–20). The Valley of Salem is possibly named after
Dictionary of Deities and Demons in the Bible
Ariel
ARIEL אריאל‎/אראלI. The term Ariel occurs 16 times in different spellings in the OT and once in the Moabite Mesha-inscription (KAI 181:12, the suggested second occurrence in line 17 is doubtful). The meaning of the word is disputed among scholars. Regarding its etymology, several propositions have been
Zion
ZION ציוןI. Zion, a name for Jerusalem of uncertain etymology, referred originally to the fortified acropolis of the pre-Israelite city. The ‘stronghold of Zion’ (mĕṣūdat ṣiyyôn, 2 Sam 5:7 = 1 Chron 11:5; 1 Kgs 8:1 = 2 Chron 5:2) was located on top of the southeastern hill, overlooking the Valley
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