Jerusalem (יְרוּשָׁלַםִ, yerushalami). The capital city of biblical Israel, and later of the southern kingdom of Judah. The central location for Israel’s self-understanding of life under God.
Jerusalem, Critical Issues
Jerusalem, Archaeology of Introduction to the archaeological data concerning Jerusalem in the Middle Bronze Age and the Iron Age.
Ariel (אֲרִיאֵל, ari'el). A poetic name for Jerusalem used in Isa 29:1–2, 7.The term seems to be derived from Hebrew אֲרִי (ariy) “lion” and אֵל (el) “god,” literally meaning “lion of God.” This interpretation is supported by 2 Sam 23:20, where it refers to a warrior or champion (i.e., a lion-like man).
Oholibah (אָ֒הלִיבָה, ohlivah). The insulting name Ezekiel gives to Jerusalem and Judah because of their alliances with Egypt, Assyria, and Babylon (Ezek 23:4). Jerusalem is personified as an unfaithful wife because the kingdom of Judah had put its faith in foreign powers rather than in Yahweh. “Oholibah”
Salem (שָׁלֵם, shalem). Melchizedek’s city—probably another name for Jerusalem (Gen 14:18; Heb 7:1–2; compare Psa 76:2). Salem was probably near the Valley of Shaveh (Gen 14:17). According to Josephus, the Jews believed Salem to be the same as Jerusalem (Antiquities 1.10.2). This identification of Salem