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Hiram (craftsman)
Excerpt from the Lexham Bible Dictionary, the most advanced Bible dictionary.
A skilled craftsman and metalworker from Tyre. Assisted in building the Solomonic temple. Responsible for the decoration of the temple and the pillars Jachin and Boaz (1 Kgs 7:13–47).The accounts of the temple building in 1 Kings and 2 Chronicles vary, making full identification of Hiram the Artisan and his role in the building difficult. The differences affect the identification of Hiram in three ways:1. The individual responsible for bringing him to work on the templea. First Kings 7:13 indicates that Solomon brought Hiramb. Second Chronicles 2:13 indicates that Hiram, king of Tyre sent Hiram.2. The extent to which he was responsible for decorating the templea. First Kings 7:14 indicates that Hiram was a bronze-smithb. Second Chronicles 2:14 portrays Hiram as a versatile artisan skillful in extensive craftwork3. The tribal identity of his mothera. First Kings 7:14 indicates that his mother was from the tribe of Naphtalib. Second Chronicles 2:14 indicates that she was from the tribe of Dan.While Hiram’s father was Tyrian, the tribe of his mother, a widow, is debated. If Hiram’s mother is from the tribe of Dan, his parentage shows a close relationship between the Tyrians and Danites. Katzenstein argues that this relationship is demonstrated by the Danites having worked as “seasonal workers” in the ports of Tyre and Sidon (Katzenstein, The History of Tyre, 66–67). Dillard argues that if Hiram’s mother was from the tribe of Naphtali, the Chronicler may have intentionally changed his mother’s descent to compare Hiram to another Danite craftsman, Oholiab, who was responsible for the equipping of the tabernacle (Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 20). This may be the reason why the Chronicler refers to Hiram as “Huram-abim,” which makes Hiram’s connection to Oholiab more explicit. However, the element “–abi” could simply mean “Master,” so Huram-abi, “Master Huram” (compare 2 Chr 2:13 NEB).
Dictionaries
The Lexham Bible Dictionary
Hiram the Artisan
Hiram the Artisan (הִירָם‎, hiram). A skilled craftsman and metalworker from Tyre. Assisted in building the Solomonic temple. Responsible for the decoration of the temple and the pillars Jachin and Boaz (1 Kgs 7:13–47).The accounts of the temple building in 1 Kings and 2 Chronicles vary, making full
Hiram, King of Tyre
Hiram, King of Tyre (הִירָם‎, hiram). King who ruled in the 10th century bc (969–936), established Tyre as the most important port city in the Mediterranean, and maintained friendly contacts with Israel. Delivered timber and sent skilled workers to build the temple in Jerusalem and the royal palaces of
Huram, Son of Bela
Huram, Son of Bela (חוּרָם‎, churam). A descendant of Benjamin who was head of his clan (1 Chr 8:5, 28).
The Anchor Yale Bible Dictionary
Hiram (Person)
HIRAM (PERSON) [Heb ḥı̂rām (חִירָם)]. Var. HURAM, HURAMABI. The name of two persons in the Hebrew Bible, both associated in some way with Tyre.1. A king of Tyre (ca. 969–936 b.c.e.) who was involved in commercial relations with David and Solomon (2 Sam 5:11; 1 Kgs 5:15—Eng 5:1). There is some confusion
Huram (Person)
HURAM (PERSON) [Heb ḥûrām (חוּרָם‎)]. 1. A son of Bela and grandson of Benjamin (1 Chr 8:5). The lists of Benjamin’s sons (Genesis 46; Numbers 26) exhibit considerable variations which are difficult to explain. The two lists of Bela’s sons (1 Chr 7:7; 8:3–5) also differ quite considerably. The Syriac
Baker Encyclopedia of the Bible
Hiram
Hiram. 1. King of Tyre during the time of David and Solomon. After David had conquered Jerusalem and moved his capital there, Hiram sent cedar wood, masons, and carpenters to build David’s palace (2 Sm 5:11; 1 Chr 14:1). Hiram remained David’s friend throughout his life (1 Kgs 5:10), and after David’s
Huram
Huram. 1. Bela’s son from Benjamin’s tribe (1 Chr 8:5); perhaps the same person as Hupham (Nm 26:39).2. Alternate spelling of Hiram, the Phoenician king of Tyre who was an ally of David and Solomon, and who supplied materials for the building of the temple (2 Chr 2:3, 11, 12; 8:2, 18; 9:10, 21).See
Huram-abi
Huram-abi. Alternate name for Hiram, Solomon’s temple architect, in 2 Chronicles 2:13 and 4:16.See Hiram #2.
The International Standard Bible Encyclopedia, Revised
Hiram
Hiram hīʹrem; HURAM hu’rem (2 Chronicles) [Heb. ḥîrām, ḥûrām, ḥîrôm, probably an abbrev. of ʾaḥîrām—(my) brother is exalted’; Gk. Chiram, Cheiram].
Huram
1. A skillful worker in all kinds of metals and furnishings whom Hiram king of Tyre lent to Solomon for work on the temple (1 K. 7:13f.; 2 Ch. 2:13). His father was a Tyrian brassworker and his mother an Israelite of the tribe of Naphtali (1 K. 7:14), “a woman of the daughters of Dan” (2 Ch. 2:14), for
Huram
Huram hūrʹəm, hoo̅rəm; HIRAM hīʹrəm [Heb. ḥûrām, ḥîrām; Gk. Chiram, Hōim, Hiwim, Houram].
Huram-Abi
Huram-Abi hūrʹəm-ā-bī, hoo̅rʹəm-ə-bē:̈psg: [Heb. ḥûrām ʾāḇî—‘Huram my father’; Gk. ho Chiram ho patḗr mou]; AV “Huram my father” (2 Ch. 2:13), “Huram his father” (4:16); NEB “master Huram.” See Huram 1.
Tyndale Bible Dictionary
Hiram
HIRAM1. King of Tyre during the time of David and Solomon. After David had conquered Jerusalem and moved his capital there, Hiram sent cedarwood, masons, and carpenters to build David’s palace (2 Sm 5:11; 1 Chr 14:1). Hiram remained David’s friend throughout his life (1 Kgs 5:1), and after David’s death,
Huram
HURAM1. Bela’s son from Benjamin’s tribe (1 Chr 8:5); perhaps the same person as Hupham (Nm 26:39).2. Alternate spelling of Hiram, the Phoenician king of Tyre who was an ally of David and Solomon and who supplied materials for the building of the temple (2 Chr 2:3, 11–12; 8:2, 18; 9:10, 21). See Hiram
Huram-Abi
HURAM-ABI Alternate name for Hiram, Solomon’s temple craftsman, in 2 Chronicles 2:13 and 4:16. See Hiram #2.
The HarperCollins Bible Dictionary (Revised and Updated)
Hiram
Hiram (hi´ruhm; a short form of Ahiram, Heb., “my brother is exalted” or “brother of the exalted one”; rendered as Huram in 1 and 2 Chronicles).1 Hiram I, the king of Tyre, and a contemporary of David and Solomon. The son of Abibaal, Hiram I was nineteen years old when he ascended the throne, and he
The Wycliffe Bible Encyclopedia
Hiram
HIRAM. A name that is commonly rendered Hiram in I Kings and I Chronicles but Huram in (II Chronicles) (q.v.).1. King of Tyre. With the reign of Hiram I the great days of Tyre (q.v.) began. When he took the reins of government, Tyre consisted of two small islands about a half mile off the Phoenician
Huram
HURAM. Variant of the name Hiram (q.v.). Huram is used by the Chronicler in every instance except 1 Chr 14:1.1. Son of Bela and grandson of Benjamin (1 Chr 8:5).2. The Tyrian craftsman employed by Solomon (2 Chr 4:11), called Hiram in (1 Kgs 7:13).3. The King of Tyre during the reign of Solomon (2
The New Bible Dictionary, Third Edition
Hiram
HIRAM. The king of *Tyre, contemporary with David and Solomon; he reigned 979/8–945/4 bc (according to Albright, 969–936 bc).
Eerdmans Dictionary of the Bible
Hiram
Hiram (Heb. ḥɩ̂rām)1. Hiram I, king of Tyre (969–935 b.c.e.), who lived on friendly terms with both David and Solomon. The Biblical Hebrew form of the name is a shortened version of the Phoenician Ahiram, which has been discovered on an inscribed sarcophagus at Byblos as the name of a king there.
Huram
Huram (Heb. ḥûrām) (also HIRAM, HURAM-ABI)1. A Tyrian metal worker employed by Solomon for technical assistance in the ornamentation of the temple (1 Kgs. 7:13–14, 40, 45 = 2 Chr. 2:13–14; 4:11–16). His father was Tyrian and his mother an Israelite from Naphtali (1 Kgs. 7:14; 2 Chr. 2:14 identifies
Huram-Abi
Huram-Abi (Heb. ḥûrāmʾāḇɩ̂)The Tyrian craftsman employed by Solomon for the metalwork of the temple (2 Chr. 2:13).See Hiram 2; Huram 1.
Eerdmans Bible Dictionary
Hiram
Hiram [hīˊrəm] (Heb. ḥîrām, ḥîrôm; abbreviation of ˒aḥîrām “[my] brother is exalted”). †
Huram
Huram [hŏorˊəm] (Heb. ḥûrām, from ˒aḥîrām “brother of the exalted”).†
Huram-Abi
Huram-Abi [hŏorˊəm āˊbē] (Heb. ḥûrām ˒āḇî “Huram is my father”).† The Tyrian craftsman employed by Solomon for the metalwork of the temple (2 Chr. 2:13; KJV “Huram my father”; NJV “my master Hurdam”; 4:16; KJV “Huram his father”).See Huram 2.
Catholic Bible Dictionary
Hiram
HIRAM The king of Tyre from around 969 to 936 b.c. He was a friend and ally of both David and Solomon (2 Sam 5:11; 1 Kgs 5:15). Hiram provided Solomon and David with timber, raw materials, ships, and labor for their ambitious building programs (1 Kgs 15:15–32; 2 Chr 1:17–2:15), in particular David’s
Smith’s Bible Dictionary
Hiram
Hi´ram, or Hu´ram (noble).1. The king of Tyre who sent workmen and materials to Jerusalem, first, 2 Sam. 5:11; 1 Chron. 14:1, to build a palace for David (b.c. 1064), whom he ever loved, 1 Kings 5:1, and again, 1 Kings 5:10; 7:13; 2 Chron. 2, 16, to build the temple for Solomon, with whom he had a treaty
Huram
Hu´ram (noble born).1. A Benjamite; son of Bela, the first-born of the patriarch. 1 Chron. 8:5.2. The form in which the name of the king of Tyre in alliance with David and Solomon—and elsewhere given as Hiram—appears in Chronicles. 1 Chron. 14:1; 2 Chron. 2:3, 11, 12; 8:2, 18; 9:10, 21.3. The same
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