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Harden
Hardened • Hardening
Dictionaries
The International Standard Bible Encyclopedia, Revised
harden; hardened
Harden; Hardened[Heb ḥāzaq] (Ex. 4:21; 7:3, 13, 22; 8:19; 9:12, 35; 10:20, 27, 11:10; 14:4, 8, 17; Josh. 11:20); NEB “make (be) obstinate,” “make stubborn,” “offer an obstinate resistance”; [ʿāmaṣ] (Dt. 15:7; 2 Ch. 36:13); NEB “be hard-hearted,” “be stubborn”; [kāḇēḏ] (Ex. 7:14; 8:15, 32; 9:7,
The New Unger’s Bible Dictionary
Harden
HARDEN. “To harden one’s face” (Prov. 21:29, KJV); is to put on an impudent, shameless face; the NASB expression is “shows a bold face,” and the NIV, “puts up a bold front.” “To harden the neck” (Prov. 29:1, NASB, KJV; “stiffened their neck,” 2 Kings 17:14; Neh. 9:29, KJV) is to be stubborn, self-willed.
Dictionary of Biblical Imagery
Hard, Harden, Hardness
Hard, Harden, HardnessThe quality of being hard rather than soft, stiff instead of pliable, is hardly mentioned at all in the Bible as a physical property. Instead it is a psychological, moral and spiritual quality that covers a range of attitudes, including refusal to listen, inability to understand,
International Standard Bible Encyclopedia
HARDEN
HARDEN<har’-d’-n> ([חָזַק‎, chazaq], [קָשָׁה‎, qashah]; [σκληρύνω, skleruno]):1. “Harden” occurs most frequently in the phrase “to harden the heart,” or “the neck.” This hardening of men’s hearts is attributed both to God and to men themselves, e.g. with reference to the hearts of Pharaoh and
The Zondervan Encyclopedia of the Bible, Volume 3, H–L
Hardening, Spiritual
hardening, spiritual. Both the OT and the NT use a variety of terms in several combinations to express the idea of stubborn human resistance to God. The Hebrew verb qāšâ H7996 (“to be heavy, hard”) and its cognate adjective can be used with spirit (e.g., Deut. 2:30, parallel verb ʾāmēṣ H599, “be
The International Standard Bible Encyclopaedia, Volumes 1–5
Harden
HARDEN, härʹd’n (חָזַק‎, ̣ḥāzaḳ, קָשָׁה‎, ḳāshāh; σκληρύνω, sklērúnō):(1) “Harden” occurs most frequently in the phrase “to harden the heart,” or “the neck.” This hardening of men’s hearts is attributed both to God and to men themselves, e.g. with reference to the hearts of Pharaoh and the Egyptians;