HARDEN. “To harden one’s face” (Prov. 21:29, KJV); is to put on an impudent, shameless face; the NASB expression is “shows a bold face,” and the NIV, “puts up a bold front.” “To harden the neck” (Prov. 29:1, NASB, KJV; “stiffened their neck,” 2 Kings 17:14; Neh. 9:29, KJV) is to be stubborn, self-willed.
Hard, Harden, HardnessThe quality of being hard rather than soft, stiff instead of pliable, is hardly mentioned at all in the Bible as a physical property. Instead it is a psychological, moral and spiritual quality that covers a range of attitudes, including refusal to listen, inability to understand,
HARDEN<har’-d’-n> ([חָזַק, chazaq], [קָשָׁה, qashah]; [σκληρύνω, skleruno]):1. “Harden” occurs most frequently in the phrase “to harden the heart,” or “the neck.” This hardening of men’s hearts is attributed both to God and to men themselves, e.g. with reference to the hearts of Pharaoh and
The Zondervan Encyclopedia of the Bible, Volume 3, H–L
hardening, spiritual. Both the OT and the NT use a variety of terms in several combinations to express the idea of stubborn human resistance to God. The Hebrew verb qāšâH7996 (“to be heavy, hard”) and its cognate adjective can be used with spirit (e.g., Deut. 2:30, parallel verb ʾāmēṣH599, “be
The International Standard Bible Encyclopaedia, Volumes 1–5
HARDEN,härʹd’n (חָזַק, ̣ḥāzaḳ, קָשָׁה, ḳāshāh;σκληρύνω,sklērúnō):(1) “Harden” occurs most frequently in the phrase “to harden the heart,” or “the neck.” This hardening of men’s hearts is attributed both to God and to men themselves, e.g. with reference to the hearts of Pharaoh and the Egyptians;