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Haman
Excerpt from the Lexham Bible Dictionary, the most advanced Bible dictionary.
A Persian official who plotted to destroy the Jews throughout the Persian Empire. His plan was foiled by Esther (Esth 3:1–15; 4:7; 5:1–9:19, 24).Haman was a Persian official under Ahasuerus. The Jewish Mordecai did not bow down before Haman as Persian custom demanded. Haman, angry at Mordecai’s refusal, decided to destroy him and the whole Jewish people. Haman deceived the king into believing that the Jews were rebellious and that they deserved to be destroyed. After the king gave him the necessary power, Haman sent out a decree ordering the massacre of the Jews. He also built a gallows to execute Mordecai.When Mordecai learned of the decree, he informed his cousin Esther, who was the queen. She turned the king against Haman, and ironically he was hanged on the gallows he had built for Mordecai.Haman is described as an “Agagite” (Esth 3:1), a designation not used elsewhere in the Bible. In spite of later Jewish tradition (Josephus, Antiquities 11.6.5), it is unlikely that Haman was literally related to Agag, the king of Amalek during Saul’s time (1 Sam 15:33). In the Greek additions to Esther, for example, Haman is described as a Macedonian (Esth 12:6; 16:10). The name Haman is also probably of Elamite origin, making any direct connection to Agag less likely. Rather, it is more likely that “Agagite” is meant to rhetorically align Haman with an ancient enemy of Israel.The victory over Haman is the origin of the Jewish festival of Purim.For more on Haman’s role in the book of Esther, see this article: Esther, Book of.
Dictionaries
The Lexham Bible Dictionary
Haman, Son of Hammedatha
Haman, Son of Hammedatha (הָמָן‎, haman). A Persian official who plotted to destroy the Jews throughout the Persian Empire. His plan was foiled by Esther (Esth 3:1–15; 4:7; 5:1–9:19, 24).Haman was a Persian official under Ahasuerus. The Jewish Mordecai did not bow down before Haman as Persian custom
The Anchor Yale Bible Dictionary
Haman (Person)
HAMAN (PERSON) [Heb hāmān (הָמָן)]. A nobleman, promoted to the rank of vizier by King Ahasuerus, and mortal enemy of the Jews in the book of Esther. After being made vizier by the king, Haman became enraged at Mordecai, who ministered at the king’s gate, for not obeying a royal command to bow down
Baker Encyclopedia of the Bible
Haman
Haman. Son of Hammedatha the Agagite, a high official under King Ahasuerus (Xerxes) in Persia during the time of Esther. Haman became angry with Mordecai, the uncle of Esther the queen, because Mordecai would not bow down to him as all others did. In anger he planned to exterminate all the Jews in Persia
The International Standard Bible Encyclopedia, Revised
Haman
Haman häʹmən [Heb. hāmān; Gk. Haman]; AV also AMAN (Ad. Est. 10:7; 12:6; 13:3, 6, 12; 14:17; 16:10, 17). A Persian noble and vizier of the empire under Xerxes. He was the enemy of Mordecai, the cousin of Esther. Mordecai, being a Jew, was unable to prostrate himself before the great official and
Tyndale Bible Dictionary
Haman
HAMAN Son of Hammedatha the Agagite, a high official under King Ahasuerus (Xerxes) in Persia during the time of Esther. Haman became angry with Mordecai, the uncle of Esther the queen, because Mordecai would not bow down to him as all others did. In anger he planned to exterminate all the Jews in Persia
The HarperCollins Bible Dictionary (Revised and Updated)
Haman
Haman (hay´muhn), the villain in the book of Esther. He is called “Haman, son of Hammedatha the Agagite, the enemy of the Jews” (Esther 3:10). His primary opponent is a Jew named Mordecai, who is identified as being in the line of Kish (2:5). Thus, their enmity was prefigured by that of Agag and Saul
The Wycliffe Bible Encyclopedia
Haman
HAMAN. The “son of Hammedatha the Agagite.” See Agagite. Haman was an influential official in the court of King Ahasuerus (Est 3:1). One of the least admirable characters of the OT, this prince was the embodiment of ignoble delusions of grandeur. After his promotion his vanity was gratified by the adulation
The New Bible Dictionary, Third Edition
Haman
HAMAN. The villain of the book of *Esther, who plots to massacre the Jews when his vanity is hurt by Mordecai’s refusal to bow to him. He is eventually hanged on the gallows that he has prepared for Mordecai. He is called an *Agagite. His name may be derived from the Elamite god, Hum (b)an.J. S. Wright.
Eerdmans Dictionary of the Bible
Haman
Haman (Heb. hāmān)A character in the book of Esther who is identified as the most important of the courtiers in the Persian court of King Ahasuerus (Esth. 3:1). He is identified as a descendant of Agag, thus foreshadowing his conflict with Mordecai, who as a Benjaminite is linked to the line of Saul
Eerdmans Bible Dictionary
Haman
Haman [hāˊmən] (Heb. hāmān). The grand vizier or highest official in the Persian Empire under King Ahasuerus (Xerxes); son of Hammedatha (Esth. 3:1). In the book of Esther he appears as Mordecai’s adversary and is labelled “the enemy of the Jews” (v. 10). He is called “the Agagite” (e.g., 3:1,
Catholic Bible Dictionary
Haman
HAMAN A courtier who was promoted to the rank of vizier by King Ahasuerus (Xerxes of Persia) in Esth 3:1. He became a bitter enemy of the Jews when Mordecai refused to give him what Haman considered proper homage (Esth 3:2–5). Not content with ordering the death of Mordecai, Haman schemed to launch a
Smith’s Bible Dictionary
Haman
Ha´man (magnificent), the chief minister or vizier of King Ahasuerus. Esther 3:1. (b.c. 473.) After the failure of his attempt to cut off all the Jews in the Persian empire, he was hanged on the gallows which he had erected for Mordecai. The Targum and Josephus interpret the description of him—the Agagite
See also
Relatives
Hammedatha Father
Zeresh Wife
Adalia Son
Vaizatha Son
Poratha Son
Parmashta Son
Aridatha Son
Aridai Son
Dalphon Son
Arisai Son
Aspatha Son
Roles
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