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Habiru
Excerpt from the Lexham Bible Dictionary, the most advanced Bible dictionary.
Habiru. A wandering, looting group of people during Israel’s settlement mentioned in the Amarna letters and other historical documents. The relationship of the terms “Hebrew” and “habiru” (sometimes spelled “hapiru”) remains in dispute.
Dictionaries
The Lexham Bible Dictionary
Habiru and the Hebrews of the Bible
Habiru and the Hebrews of the Bible Habiru. A wandering, looting group of people during Israel’s settlement mentioned in the Amarna letters and other historical documents. The relationship of the terms “Hebrew” and “habiru” (sometimes spelled “hapiru”) remains in dispute.
The Anchor Yale Bible Dictionary
Habiru, Hapiru
ḪABIRU, ḪAPIRU. Often considered to be the Akkadian equivalent of Heb ʿibrı̂. See HEBREW.A. The Identity of the ḫabiru/ḫapiruEver since this Akkadian expression was first recognized in a.d. 1888, viz., in the Amarna Letters written by Abdi-Ḫepa of Jerusalem around 1375 b.c. (EA 286–90; Greenberg
Baker Encyclopedia of the Bible
Habiru
Habiru. Term, more accurately rendered Hapiru, referring to certain groups of people appearing in texts from virtually the whole ancient Near East from the 19th century bc to the 12th century bc. Despite more than a half-century of discovery and research, no agreement has been reached on the spelling,
The International Standard Bible Encyclopedia, Revised
Habiru
Habiru häʹbi-roo̅, hä-bēʹroo̅ [more correctly HAPIRU or `APIRU; to conform to standard conventions, the form Ḫapiru will be adopted henceforth]. A term used in cuneiform and Egyptian literature of the 21st to 12th cents b.c. to designate disparate groups of peoples. These peoples were apparently
Eerdmans Bible Dictionary
Habiru (Apiru)
HABIRU[häˊbī rōō] (˓APIRU) [äˊpī rōō] (Akk. ḫabiru, ḫapiru, apiru; Egyp. ‘pr.w; Ugar. ‘prm; Sum. sa-gaz).†Anomalous groups of people attested throughout the ancient Near East from the late third millennium through the twelfth century B.C. More precise definition of these people, their
The Archaeological Encyclopedia of the Holy Land
Habiru
HABIRU One of the names by which the Assyrians, Babylonians and some other nations of the 2nd millennium bc referred to the nomads who, either singly or in groups, were seeking new countries in which to settle. The form in which this name appears in the documents of Ugarit and Mari is close to the name
Nelson’s New Illustrated Bible Dictionary
Habiru
HABIRU [hah BIHR roo] — the people of a broad social movement that took place throughout the ancient Near East from about 2000 to 1100 b.c. The word Habiru comes from the Akkadian language, and its equivalents appeared throughout the period in each of the known languages of the region. While scholars
Holman Illustrated Bible Dictionary
Habiru
HABIRU (Hă bēʹ rū) Appearing in texts from about 2300 through 1200 b.c. throughout the Near Eastern world, this word was used of a class of rootless mercenaries. Some scholars suggest that the Habiru were the Hebrews—ethnic Israel—citing the linguistic similarity of the terms. However, first, the
The Zondervan Encyclopedia of the Bible, Volume 3, H–L
Habiru, Hapiru
Habiru, Hapiru hah-bee’roo, hah-pee’roo. The Akkadian term ḫabiru (which can also be transliterated ḫapiru) appears in cuneiform texts dated from the 20th to the 18th centuries B.C. in southern Mesopotamia, in Asia Minor, and in the Haran and Mari areas. They are frequently mentioned in the Tell el-Amarna
The New Interpreter’s Dictionary of the Bible, Volumes 1–5
HABIRU
HABIRU, HAPIRU hah-bee´roo, hah-pee´roo. A socially and politically marginal population group appearing throughout much of the ANE from ca. 1850 to 1150 bce. They appear prominent in pre-Israelite Canaan and are thought by many scholars to be connected in some manner with the early Israelites = Hebrews