Grind • Grinder
The International Standard Bible Encyclopedia, Revised
Grind [Heb. ṭāḥan (Job 31:10; Isa. 47:2; Lam. 5:13), gāras (Lam. 3:16); Gk. brýchō (Acts 7:54), trízō (Mk. 9:18)]; AV also HAS BROKEN (Lam. 3:16); NEB also “be [a] slave” (Job 31:10), HAS BROKEN (Lam. 3:16); GRINDERS [Heb. ṭōḥanôṯ] (Eccl. 12:3); GRINDING (part) [Heb. ṭāḥan (Dt. 9:21;
The Wycliffe Bible Encyclopedia
GRIND. In Isa 3:15 “to grind the faces of the poor a means to oppress the poor still further by extortion. “Let my wife grind for another” (Job 31:10 RSV) means “let her become a slave in grinding grain for another man” (cf. Ex 11:5; Isa 47:2). In Eccl 12:3 the “grinders” that “cease because they are
The New Bible Dictionary, Third Edition
GRINDER (from Heb. tāḥan, ‘to grind’). Grinding in the E is usually done by women (cf. Mt. 24:41). In Ec. 12:3 the word is used in a metaphorical sense to denote the teeth. For a full discussion of the Jewish poetic imagery employed here, see ICC, Ecclesiastes, pp. 186ff.J. D. Douglas.
Eerdmans Bible Dictionary
Grinding (Heb. ṭāḥan). The processing of grain into flour, generally by rubbing or pulverizing between two stones turned by hand or with the aid of animals. In the ancient Near East the task generally was relegated to women, to servants or slaves (Exod. 11:5), or to prisoners (Judg. 16:21) or the
Easton’s Bible Dictionary
Grind(Ex. 32:20; Deut. 9:21; Judg. 16:21), to crush small (Heb. tahan; to oppress the poor (Isa. 3:5). The hand-mill was early used by the Hebrews (Num. 11:8). It consisted of two stones, the upper (Deut. 24:6; 2 Sam. 11:21) being movable and slightly concave, the lower being stationary. The grinders
Nelson’s New Illustrated Bible Dictionary
GRIND — to prepare grain for cooking by crushing it into a fine mixture. Wheat was ground into flour in Bible times by pulverizing the kernels between two large circular stones (Is. 47:2). Also see Tools of the Bible.
The Zondervan Encyclopedia of the Bible, Volume 2, D–G
grind. A procedure by which grain was reduced to flour through being pulverized between two large stones (e.g., Heb. ṭāḥan H3221, Isa. 47:2; Gk. alēthō G241, Lk. 17:35). Small hand mills sometimes had holes in the center of the top stone through which the grain was poured (Matt. 24:41). Larger community
The New Interpreter’s Dictionary of the Bible, Volumes 1–5
GRIND, GRINDING [טָחַןtakhan]. The pulverizing of grain between two stones in order to process it into flour, a task generally carried out by women, servants, or slaves (Exod 11:5), prisoners (Judg 16:21), or war captives (Lam 5:13).
Key passages
Ec 12:3–4

When the guards of the house tremble, and the men of strength are bent; the grinders cease because they are few, and those looking through the windows see dimly. When the doors on the street are shut, when the sound of the grinding mill is low; one rises up to the sound of the bird, and …

Mt 24:41

Two women will be grinding at the mill; one will be taken and one left.