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The Lexham Bible Dictionary
Galilee
Galilee (גְּלִיל‎, gelil). A region in the northern part of Israel. The site of many biblical events, especially in the life of Christ. Jesus grew up in Galilee.
Galilee, Critical Issues
Galilee, History of Reviews the history of Galilee under the major ruling powers from the 10th century bc onward.
Idumea
Idumea (Ἰδουμαια, Idoumaia). Also known as Idumaea. The Greek name for a territory located south of Judaea during the Second Temple period, in the same general area as the ancient land of Edom. Homeland of Herod the Great. Referenced once in the New Testament (Mark 3:8). Played an important role in the
Jerusalem
Jerusalem (יְרוּשָׁלַםִ‎, yerushalami). The capital city of biblical Israel, and later of the southern kingdom of Judah. The central location for Israel’s self-understanding of life under God.
Jerusalem, Critical Issues
Jerusalem, Archaeology of Introduction to the archaeological data concerning Jerusalem in the Middle Bronze Age and the Iron Age.
Sidon
Sidon (צִידוֹן‎, tsidon; Σιδών, Sidōn; modern Saida). The site of one of the most important Canaanite and Phoenician city-states on the Lebanese coast, which flourished from the late fourth—third millennium bc until the first millennium bc.
Tyre
Tyre (צור‎, tswr). A town on the Phoenician coast founded during the third millennium bc. Located approximately 35 kilometers south of Sidon.
The Anchor Yale Bible Dictionary
Beyond the Jordan (Place)
BEYOND THE JORDAN (PLACE). From the E this would be W of the Jordan, i.e., Cisjordan; from the W, it would be E of the river, i.e., Transjordan. The Talmud refers to Transjordan.The “Jordan” is usually understood to be the Jordan river but it may be an old word for “river” with the context suggesting
Galilee
GALILEE. The northernmost region of the land of Israel. Culturally and historically it is characterized by its close proximity to the coastal cultures of Canaan-Phoenicia on the W and NW and to the inland Syrian-Aramaean cultures on the E and NE. The character and culture of Galilee and its neighbors
Idumea (Place)
IDUMEA (PLACE) [Gk Idoumaia (Ἰδουμαια)]. IDUMEANS. A territory that during the Second Temple period stretched approximately from the S portion of the Judean hill country to the N part of the Negeb. To the N, the borders ran between Beth-Zur and Alouros (Ḥalḥūl), while the S border reached the height
Jerusalem (Place)
JERUSALEM (PLACE) [Heb yĕrûšālayim (יְרוּשָׁלַיִם)]. Pliny the Elder described Jerusalem as “by far the most renowned city of the ancient East” (HN V:14). Jerusalem is best known as the “holy city” (Isa 52:1), sacred to the three great monotheistic religions. Few subjects have generated so large
Sidon (Place)
SIDON (PLACE) [Heb ṣı̂dōn (צִידֹן)]. SIDONIAN. A city of ancient Phoenicia. The Greek geographer Strabo mentions Sidon as one of the most ancient of the Phoenician cities (16.2.22). Situated on the E Mediterranean coast about 25 miles N of Tyre, Sidon (modern Saïda, 33°32´ N; 35°22´ E) was prominent
Tyre (Place)
TYRE (PLACE) [Heb ṣōr (צֹר)]. TYRIAN. One of the most ancient towns on the Phoenician coast. Tyre (M.R. 168297) is situated about 40km S of Sidon, and about 45km N of Acco. In antiquity it was an island ca. 600–750m from the mainland (Curtius Hist. of Alex. 4.2.7), but since the time of Alexander
Baker Encyclopedia of the Bible
Galilee, Galileans
Galilee, Galileans. Area in northern Palestine which, in Israel’s earlier history, had boundaries which were not clearly defined but which became more precisely defined in the period of Roman rule. The English name “Galilee” comes from two Hebrew words meaning “circuit” or “district.”The Horns of
Idumaea, Idumeans
Idumaea, Idumeans. Term derived from the Greek form of Edom (“red”). The change from Edomite to Idumean resulted from the conquests of Alexander the Great, which made Greek the common language of the area. The name was applied to the former country of the Edomites and to the portion of south Judah occupied
Jerusalem
Jerusalem. Historic city sacred to Christians, Jews, and Muslims; the chief city of ancient Palestine and of the modern state of Israel.
Judea
Judea. “Land of the Jews,” particularly after the captivity. Since most of the Israelites who returned from the exile were from the tribe of Judah, they were called Jews and their land, Judea. This part of the Holy Land has always been of great interest to the Bible student because of the location of
Sidon, Sidonian (Place)
Sidon, Sidonian (Place). City on the Phoenician coast, between Beirut and Tyre; frequently called Zidon in the kjv. The present town, Saida, is not regarded as a direct continuation of the ancient city, but a development of post-Crusader times. The names Sidon and Sidonian appear 38 times in the OT and
Tyre
Tyre. Ancient Phoenician city-state located on the Mediterranean coast 20 miles south of Sidon and 23 miles north of Acre. Tyre consisted of two major parts, an older port city on the mainland and an island city a half-mile from the coast where the majority of the population lived. According to Herodotus,
The International Standard Bible Encyclopedia, Revised
Galilee
Galilee gal’ə-lē [Heb gālîl—‘circuit, district, cylinder,’ in construct ‘the region of’; Gk galilaía]. The northern portion of Palestine, scene of most of the earthly ministry of Jesus. I. Name II. Location III. Physical FeaturesA. Coastal PlainB. Upper GalileeC. Lower GalileeD. Plain of
Gilgal
5. Joshua 12:23 refers to “King of Goiim in [or at] Gilgal”; but most scholars follow the LXX in reading glyl (gālîl, Galilee) for glgl (Gilgal). If Goiim is to be identified with Harosheth-ha-goiim (Jgs. 4:2), this place (or area) would be in Galilee. 1 Macc. 9:2, in its best-attested reading, refers
Idumea
Idumea id-ū-mēʹə [Gk. Idoumaia, Idoumea—‘(land) of the Edomites’]. The Greek name for Edom as found in the LXX and sometimes used interchangeably with Edom in the AV. The name was eventually attached to the region S of Judea occupied by Edomites (Idumeans) who moved there after the fall of Jerusalem
Jerusalem
Jerusalem jə-roo̅ʹsə-ləm:-l:m [Heb. yerûšālayim, yerûšālēm—‘city of wholeness’; Gk. Ierosalēm, Hierosolyma]. The principal city of ancient Israel, location of the temple, capital of the kingdom of Judah, chief city of nascent Judaism, the city where Jesus Christ was tried and crucified,
Judea
Judea joo̅-dēʹə [Gk. Ioudaia, for ioudaía gē or ioudaía chōra, “Judean land/region”]; AV, NEB, JUDAEA, JUDAH. The Greek and Roman equivalent of “Judah.” Since the territory of Judah was approximately all that remained of the northern and southern kingdoms at the time of the Babylonian Exile, the
Sidon
Sidon. bîʹ̄dən [Heb. ṣîḏôn; Akk. ṣidunnu; Gk. Sidōn]; AV also ZIDON. A city-state on the Mediterranean coast, 40 km (25 mi) N of Tyre, the modern city of Ṣaidaʾ. The name was explained by the ancients as derived from that of an eponymous hero, founder of the city (Side or Sidon in classical
Tyre
Tyre tīr [Heb. ṣōr, ṣôr; Ugar., Phoen. ṣr; Akk. ṣurri; Gk. tyros]; AV also TYRUS. An important Phoenician city, modern Ṣur, located between Sidon and Acco.
Tyndale Bible Dictionary
Galilee
GALILEE Area in northern Palestine that, in Israel’s earlier history, had boundaries that were not clearly defined but that became more precisely defined in the period of Roman rule. The English name Galilee comes from two Hebrew words meaning “circuit” or “district.”Historical Background In OT times
Idumaea, Idumea, Idumeans
IDUMAEA*, IDUMEA, IDUMEANS Term derived from the Greek form of Edom (“red”). The change from Edomite to Idumean resulted from the conquests of Alexander the Great, which made Greek the common language of the area. The name was applied to the former country of the Edomites and to the portion of south
Jerusalem
JERUSALEM Historic city sacred to Christians, Jews, and Muslims; the chief city of ancient Palestine and of the modern state of Israel.PreviewMeaning of the NameGeographical SituationHistoryMeaning of the NameEgyptian Meaning The earliest mention of the name occurs in the Egyptian Execration
Judea, Judeans
JUDEA, JUDEANS “Land of the Jews,” particularly after the Captivity. Since most of the Israelites who returned from the exile were from the tribe of Judah, they were called Judeans or Jews and their land, Judea. This part of the Holy Land has always been of great interest to the Bible student because
Sidon (Place), Sidonian
SIDON (Place), SIDONIAN City on the Phoenician coast, between Beirut and Tyre; frequently called Zidon in the kjv. The present town, Saida, is not regarded as a direct continuation of the ancient city but rather a development of post-Crusader times. The names Sidon and Sidonian appear 38 times in the
Tyre
TYRE Ancient Phoenician city-state located on the Mediterranean coast 20 miles (32.2 kilometers) south of Sidon and 23 miles (37 kilometers) north of Acre. Tyre consisted of two major parts: an older port city on the mainland and an island city a half mile (.8 kilometer) from the coast where the majority
The HarperCollins Bible Dictionary (Revised and Updated)
Galilee
Galilee (gal´uh-lee; Heb. Galil), the region of the Levant that is situated between the Litani River in modern Lebanon and the Jezreel Valley in modern Israel. The designation “Galilee” first occurs as a proper name in Joshua (20:7; 21:32) and in Chronicles (1 Chron. 6:76) in reference to the site of
Gilgal
Gilgal (gil´gal; Heb., “circle,” probably of stones).1 A town located between Jericho and the Jordan. This Gilgal served as the Israelites’ first encampment after crossing the Jordan (Josh. 3–4), and it became Joshua’s base of operations. It is probably to be identified with modern Khirbet el-Mafjir,
Idumea
Idumea (id´yoo-mee´uh), the Greek name for Edom as found in the lxx. After the exile (587/6 bce) the name designated the region in Judea from Beth-zur to south of Beer-sheba, an area occupied in part by Edomites (Idumeans, Ezek. 36:5). Throughout the Seleucid, Hasmonean, and Herodian periods (ca. 198
Island
island. A number of specific islands are referred to in the Bible.1 Arvad, in northern Phoenicia, an island-city located two miles offshore (Ezek. 27:8, 11).2 Cauda, a small island south of Crete where, according to Acts, Paul took refuge during a storm (27:13–17).3 Chios, an island off the northern
Jerusalem
JerusalemTopography: Situated on the crest of the Judean mountains some twenty miles west of the Dead Sea’s northern end and thirty miles east of the Mediterranean Sea, the biblical city of Jerusalem (ji-roo´suh-luhm) was built over two hills ranging from 2,300 to 2,500 feet above sea level and surrounded
Judea
Judea (joo-dee´uh), the Greco-Latin form of “Judah.” As a geographic term, “Judea” first occurs in Ezra 9:9 to designate the area of the Jewish state ruled by the Persians. It included only a relatively small area around Jerusalem, smaller in extent than the former kingdom of Judah. It extended from
Sidon
Sidon (si´duhn), one of the two leading cities (with Tyre) of ancient Phoenicia. Sidon is located twenty-two miles north of Tyre on the Mediterranean coast of modern Lebanon. It possesses a port with an inner and outer harbor on the north side and another on the south. Substantial archaeological investigation
Tyre
Tyre (tir), the leading city of Phoenicia during much of the first millennium bce. Tyre is located off the coast of southern Lebanon on a small island that has been connected to the mainland since the construction of a siege ramp to it by Alexander the Great (late fourth century bce). Of its two harbors
The Wycliffe Bible Encyclopedia
Beyond Jordan, Beyond the River
BEYOND JORDAN, BEYOND THE RIVER The deep rift of the Jordan River divides Palestine E and W. The Heb. term “beyond the Jordan” is used numerous times of the land E (Deut 1:1; 3:8, RVS) and also a number of times of the land W of the Jordan (Deut 3:20, 25; 11:30). The phrase thus acquires a technical
City of God
CITY OF GOD1. A term used to describe Jerusalem (Ps 46:4; 48:1, 8). It was the city which God chose to be His habitation among the tribes of Israel (Deut 12:5). See Jerusalem.2. This term is used also to describe heaven, or the New Jerusalem (Heb 11:10; 12:21; Rev 3:12; 21; 22). See Jerusalem, New.
Galilee
GALILEE. The northernmost section of three in Palestine W of the Jordan River. Northern Galilee is mountainous (up to 4,000 feet above sea level) extending S from the Leontes River (Nahr el-Litani), which terminates the Lebanons, c. 30 miles to Wadi esh-Shaghur that flows toward Acco (Ptolemais). Southern
Idumaea
IDUMAEA. This term was used by the Greeks and Romans (with slightly different spellings) to refer to the region inhabited by the descendants of Esau—the Edomites of the OT. See Esau. The word appears once in the Bible, Mk 3:8 (the KJV uses it in Isa 34:5–6; Ezk 35:15; 36:5), but Edom is given by other
Jerusalem
JERUSALEM. This city has been aptly called the “spiritual capital of the world,”. judgment underscored by the United Nations’ resolution of 1947 to designate it an international holy city. To students of the Bible and of history it is perhaps the world’s most fascinating community, being one the world’s
Judea
JUDEA. In Persian times Judea was a tiny province of the Arabaya Satrapy lying S of Samaria and corresponding approximately to the earlier kingdom of Judah except that the coastal cities were excluded. The term Judea (Ioudaia) represents the Hellenizing process which took place following the conquests
Sidon
SIDON. An ancient Phoenician city located about 20 miles N of Tyre and a like distance S of Beirut. Backed by the Lebanon Mountains, Sidon faces the Mediterranean and anciently controlled the Plain of Sidon, a strip of coastal plain about 20 miles long and two miles wide.Apparently the oldest of Phoenician
Tyre
TYRE. An ancient Phoenician city-state on the Mediterranean between Acre and Sidon. In control of only the plain of Tyre (c. 15 miles long and two miles wide) in the early days, the city eventually established leadership over all the cities of the Phoenician coast, but did not unify them into a national
Zidon
ZIDON. An alternate designation for the Phoenician city of Sidon. Although the KJV uses both Sidon and Zidon, the newer versions tend to standardize by using Sidon, which is the common name employed in secular references. Therefore discussion of the city appears in this work under Sidon (q.v.).
The New Bible Dictionary, Third Edition
Galilee
GALILEE (Heb. gālîl, ‘ring, circle’, hence a ‘district, region’). The regional name of part of N Palestine, which was the scene of Christ’s boyhood and early ministry. The origin of the name as applied here is uncertain. It occurs occasionally in the OT (e.g. Jos. 20:7; 1 Ki. 9:11), and notably in
Idumaea
IDUMAEA. The Gk. form (idoumaia) of the Heb. ’eḏôm refers to an area in W Palestine, rather than to Edom proper. At the time of the Exodus, Edom extended to both sides of the Arabah, and the W portion reached close to Kadesh (Nu. 20:16). David subdued Edom, but there was continual conflict between
Sidon
SIDON (Heb. ṣîḏôn, ṣîḏōn). A major walled city and port in ancient *Phoenicia (now located on the coast of Lebanon). Sidon (av also ‘Zidon’; modern Saida) had twin harbours and was divided into Greater Sidon (Jos. 11:8) and Lesser Sidon.According to tradition, Sidon was the first Phoenician
Tyre, Tyrus
TYRE, TYRUS. The principal seaport on the Phoenician coast, about 40 km S of Sidon and 45 N of Akko, Tyre (mod. Ṣûr; Heb. ṣôr; Assyr. Ṣur(r)u; Egyp. Ḏaru; Gk. Tyros) comprised two harbours. One lay on an island, the other ‘Old’ port on the mainland may be the Uššu of Assyrian inscriptions. The
Eerdmans Dictionary of the Bible
Beyond the Jordan
Beyond the JordanA geographical term (Heb. ʿēḇer hayyardēn) designating either the region W (e.g., Gen. 50:10–11, Jacob’s burial place) or (usually) E (e.g., Judg. 5:17, Gad; Matt. 4:25, Gk. péran) of the river Jordan, depending on the writer’s viewpoint.
Galilee
Galilee (Heb. gālɩ̂l; Gk. Galilaɩ́a)The northern region of Palestine, shaped by geology, prehistory, and historic circumstance for an important role in the emergence of both Judaism and Christianity. Called Galilee since at least the 7th century b.c.e., the region was bounded roughly by the Esdraelon
Idumea
Idumea (Gk. Idoumaɩ́a, Idouméa)Designation used in the Hellenistic age for the territory stretching north to south from the southern portion of the Judean hill country to the northern part of the Negeb, and east to west from the Judean desert to the Philistine cities of Gaza and Ashdod. Its major cities
Jerusalem
Jerusalem (Heb. yĕrûšālayim)The primary city of ancient Israel, capital of Judah and the United Monarchy.
Judea
Judea (Gk. Ioudaɩ́a)The postexilic Greek term for Judah. Used in the LXX, Philo, Josephus, NT, and inscriptions, the term originally designated the area of southern Palestine surrounding Jerusalem previously established as a province by the Babylonian Nebuchadnezzar and retained by subsequent Persian
Sidon
Sidon (Heb. ṣɩ̂ḏôn; Gk. Sidṓn)Phoenician metropolis and famous harbor in southern Lebanon, some 40 km. (25 mi.) S of Beirut. The modern town of Ṣaidā lies over the ancient site, and only its perimeter has been explored by archaeology. Sidon had a complex double port consisting of an off-shore
Tyre
TyrePhoenician port and kingdom located on an island originally situated some 700 m. (1300 ft.) offshore and ca. 35 km. (22 mi.) S of Sidon. The modern town of aṣ-Ṣûr covers the ancient city and little is known about the city from archaeology. The ancient city had two havens: the northern harbor
Eerdmans Bible Dictionary
Beyond the Jordan
Beyond the Jordan (Heb. ˓ēḇer hayyardēn).† A geographical term designating either the region west (e.g., Gen. 50:10–11, Jacob’s burial place [NIV “near the Jordan”; JB “across the Jordan”]; Deut. 3:20, Palestine [NIV “across the Jordan”]) or east (usually, e.g., Judg. 5:17, the inheritance
Galilee
Galilee [gălˊə lə̄] (Heb. gālîl “circle” or “district”).† The northernmost region of ancient Israel. The name means “district,” and is short for “district of the nations.” In Isa. 9:1 (MT 8:23) the name is partially translated “Galilee of the nations.” Later the area was referred to simply as
Idumea
Idumea [ĭdˊŏo mēˊyə] (Gk. Idoumaia, Idoumea “[land] of the Edomites”).† The Hellenistic Greek name for the territory south of Judea then inhabited by the Edomites, who had been displaced from their territory by the Nabateans; in the LXX and Josephus the term designates Edom proper. Located west
Jerusalem
Jerusalem [jə rōōˊ sə ləm] (Heb. yerûšālayim, yerûšālēm “city of peace, wholeness [or “Salem”]”).† The city of David, capital of Judah and the united monarchy; holy city of Judaism, Christianity, and Islam.
Judea
Judea [jōō dēˊə] (Gk. Ioudaia).† The Greek and Latin form of Judah. In biblical usage it occurs first in accounts dating from the Persian period (Ezra; Nehemiah; cf. Tob. 1:18) as the designation for the post-exilic Jewish state.Although in preexilic times Judah comprised essentially the
Sidon
Sidon [sīˊdən] (Heb. ṣîḏôn; Gk. Sidōn).† An ancient Phoenician city-state, located at modern Ṣaidā, ca. 36 km. (22 mi.) north of Tyre and an equal distance south of Beirut. The site has not been excavated. Located on a small hill that projects into the Mediterranean Sea, the city
Tyre
Tyre [tīr] (Heb. ṣōr, ṣôr; Gk. Tyros).† A major Phoenician city, in ancient times located on an island off the Mediterranean coast, ca. 40 km. (25 mi.) south of Sidon and 45 km. (28 mi.) north of Akko; modern Ṣûr, now situated on a peninsula. Tyre’s appearance as an independent
The Archaeological Encyclopedia of the Holy Land
Galilee
GALILEE The northern part of Palestine, also called ‘Galilee of the nations’ after the Assyrian conquest (Isa. 9:1), possibly because of the many nations which dwelt in that part of the country before the Israelite conquest. Galilee is bordered by the Jezreel Valley on the south, the Sea of Galilee on
Idumea
IDUMEA The region south of Judea, which in the Persian period was settled by Edomites. It included the southern hills of Judah, its southern border being north of Beer-Sheba. In the early Hellenistic period Marissa (Mareshah) became its capital. During the reign of the Seleucids Idumea was enlarged to
Jerusalem
JERUSALEMthe canaanite and israelite citythe site The principal remains of biblical Jerusalem have been uncovered on the City of David, the hill overlooking the Gihon Spring (the Virgin’s Fountain in the Kidron Valley. This section of the City of David is bordered on the north by the Temple Mount,
Sidon
SIDON One of the most ancient Phoenician cities situated in the narrow fertile plain between the mountains of Lebanon and the Mediterranean. Lying at the northern end of the plain, it was fortified by a strong wall, and had two harbors defended by a few small islands and a breakwater. Sidon is mentioned
Tyre; Tyrians
TYRE; TYRIANS An important Canaanite city in Phoenicia, its name meaning ‘rock’; called Zara or Zaru by the Assyrians and Tyros by the Greeks. The modern Arab town of the same name was built over the ancient site. The oldest part of Tyre was built on the narrow coastal strip and it is this area that
Dictionary of Deities and Demons in the Bible
Sidon
SIDON צידןI. The ancient Phoenician city of Sidon, situated 25 miles north of Tyre, plays a considerable role in biblical literature. It came to stand for Phoenicia in general (Schmitz 1992:17). Lewy has argued that the city bears the name of the demon Ṣı̄dānu known from the Myth of Nergal and Ereshkigal