Loading…
God
Dictionaries
The Lexham Bible Dictionary
God
God The supreme being and Creator of the universe. Known by the personal name Yahweh. The New Testament sees God as Father, the Son Jesus Christ, and Holy Spirit.
Alpha and Omega
Alpha and Omega (τὸ ἄλφα καὶ τὸ ὦ, to alpha kai to ō). The first and last letters of the Greek alphabet, symbolically representing the beginning and the end. The book of Revelation uses the phrase “alpha and omega” to describe both God (Rev 1:8; 21:6) and Jesus (Rev 22:13). The Greek expression uses
Ancient of Days
Ancient of Days (עַתִּיק יֽוֹמַיָּ֔א‎, attiq yomayya'). A title for God in the book of Daniel (Dan 7:9; 7:13; 7:22).
El Roi
El Roi (אֵל רֳאִי‎, el ro'iy; ὁ θεὸς ὁ ἐπιδών, ho theos ho epidōn; [LXX]). The name Hagar gives to God in Gen 16:13.
El Shaddai
El Shaddai (אֵל שַׁדָּ֥י‎, el shadday). One of the names applied to Yahweh in the Old Testament (Gen 17:1; 28:3; 35:11; 43:14; 48:3; Exod 6:3). The name El Shaddai appears mainly in the book of Genesis. In Exodus 6:3, Yahweh says El Shaddai was the name by which He was known to the patriarchs. Ezekiel
El, Deity
El, Deity (אֵל‎, el). A West Semitic word meaning “god.” In the Old Testament, it is frequently used to refer to the God of Israel (e.g., Gen 31:29; 33:20; Num 12:13) or to other gods (Exod 15:11; 34:14; Deut 32:21; Psa 44:20). In ancient texts from Ugarit, it was the name for the Canaanite creator god,
El-Elyon
El Elyon (אֵל עֶלְי֔וֹן‎, el elyon). An Israelite name for God, translated “God Most High,” which stresses his strength, sovereignty, and supremacy (Gen 14:20; Psa 9:2).
Eloah
Eloah (אֱלוֹהַ‎, eloah). A Hebrew name for God. A variant form of the common Northwest Semitic word for god, אֵל‎ (el) (Deut 32:15; Job 3:4; Psa 18:32; Prov 30:5; Hab 3:3). The name Eloah appears most often in biblical poetry, especially in the poetry of Job, where it is used 46 times (e.g., Job 3:4; 4:9;
Elohim
Elohim (אֱלֹהִים‎, elohim). A masculine plural form of El (אֵל‎, el). Lexically, this word has several meanings; in Scripture, it typically means “God” or “gods” and also refers to Yahweh (יהוה‎, yhwh), the God of Israel.
Fear of Isaac
Fear of Isaac (פַּחַד יִצְחָק‎, pachad yitschaq). A name of God found twice in the Old Testament (Gen 31:42, 53).
I Am Who I Am
I Am Who I Am (אֶהְיֶה אֲשֶׁר אֶהְיֶה‎, ehyeh asher ehyeh). A name for God. At the burning bush, God gives Moses this name when he asks what to tell the Israelites when they ask who sent him (Exod 3:13).
Ishi
Ishi (אִישִׁי‎, ishiy). A Hebrew term meaning “my husband” that is transliterated as a name in some translations of Hos 2:16.
Jehovah
Jehovah An older English representation of the proper name for the God of Israel (YHWH). The influence of the King James Version on the English language, and the influence of Christianity on Western culture, resulted in the pronunciation “Jehovah” coming to be an accepted English name for the God of
Jehovah-Jireh
Jehovah-Jireh (יהוה יִרְאֶה‎, yhwh yir'eh). The name given by Abraham to the place where he had sacrificed a ram provided by God, instead of his son Isaac. It means either “The Lord will provide” or “The Lord will see” (Gen 22:14). The representation of the name of the God of Israel as Jehovah is based
Lord of Hosts
Lord of Hosts (יְהוָה צְבָאוֹת‎, yhwh tseva'oth). A phrase describing Yahweh’s role as the Lord of the heavenly armies, the commander of the cosmic forces, the head of the divine council, and the leader of Israel’s army (Wildberger, Isaiah, 29–30; Zobel, “Tseva’oth,” 220).
Shaddai
Shaddai (שַׁדַּי‎, shadday). A name for God used primarily in the books of Genesis and Job (e.g., Gen 17:1; 28:3; Job 5:17; 6:4, 14). In Genesis, the name appears five times in the compound “El Shaddai” (אֵל שַׁדָּ֥י‎, el shadday; Gen 17:1; 28:3; 35:11; 43:14; 48:3) and once as “Shaddai” (Gen 49:25; though
Trinity
Trinity A description of the God of Christian Scripture, revealed and understood as Father, Son, and Holy Spirit; a fundamental doctrine of Christian theology.
YHWH
YHWH (יהוה‎, yhwh). The personal name of Israel’s covenant God in the Old Testament, often called the Tetragrammaton (based on the Greek for “four” and “letter”).
The Anchor Yale Bible Dictionary
God
GOD. This entry consists of two articles, one covering God in the OT, and the other covering God in the NT. See related entries: DRAGON AND SEA, GOD’S CONFLICT WITH; IMAGE OF GOD (OT); KINGDOM OF GOD/HEAVEN; NAMES OF GOD IN THE OT; SON OF GOD; WILL OF GOD IN THE OT; WORD OF GOD; WORKS OF GOD; WRATH OF
Almighty
ALMIGHTY [Heb šadday (שַׁדַּי‎), ʾēl šadday (אֵל שַׁדַּי); Gk pantokrator (παντοκρατορ)]. General name given to the patriarchal family god and later identified with Yahweh. “Almighty” translates the Hebrew Shaddai of the pre-Mosaic tradition (Gen 17:1; Cross CMHE, 13–75) and is identified with Yahweh
Alpha and Omega
ALPHA AND OMEGA. The first and last letters of the Greek alphabet. The phrase “the Alpha and the Omega” is used three times in the book of Revelation, twice as a self-designation of God (1:8; 21:6) and once as a self-designation of Christ (22:13). The meaning of “alpha and omega” is evident from the
Fear of Isaac
FEAR OF ISAAC [Heb paḥad yiṣḥāq (פַּחַד יִצְחָק)]. An ancient title of the divinity used twice in the OT (Gen 31:42, 53, paḥad ʾābı̂w yiṣḥāq, “the Fear of his father Isaac”), uniformly rendered in ancient times and generally in later times as “the fear/terror of Isaac.” Some modern scholars
Hosts, Lord of
HOSTS, LORD OF. One of the most enigmatic divine names in the Hebrew Bible is yhwh ṣĕbāʾôt (here = YHWH Sebaʾot), commonly translated “LORD of Hosts,” or “Yahweh of Hosts.” The LXX usually renders it as kyrios pantokratōr, “Lord Almighty,” or kyrios tōn dynameōn, “Lord of the Forces” (dynamis
Ishi (Deity)
ISHI (DEITY) [Heb ʾı̂šı̂ (אִישִׁי‎)]. KJV rendering (actually, transliteration) of Heb ʾı̂šı̂ in Hos 2:18—Eng 2:16. Most versions now translate ʾı̂šı̂ as “my husband” (lit. “my man”). The context of the verse, Hosea 2 (in a broader sense, Hosea 1–3), likens the covenant relationship of God (Yahweh)
Most High
MOST HIGH [Heb ʿelyôn (עֶלְיֹון)]. Meaning “the Exalted One,” ʿelyôn is the title given to the highest of the gods in the Canaanite pantheon and was appropriated by the Hebrews as a title for Yahweh at various intervals in the life of the nation (e.g., Deut 32:8–9; 2 Sam 22:14; Pss 7:17; 97:9). Used
Yahweh (Deity)
YAHWEH (DEITY) [Heb K yhwh (יהוה)]. The name of God in the OT. When it stands alone, and with prefixed prepositions or the conjunction wa-, “and,” the name is always written with the four Hebrew letters yod, he, waw, he, and is for that reason called the Tetragrammaton. In this form the name appears
Baker Encyclopedia of the Bible
Almighty
Almighty. Divine name found in 11 books of the Bible, but particularly in the Books of Job (31 references) and Revelation (9 references).See God, Names of.
Alpha and Omega
Alpha and Omega. Phrase used as a title in the NT for both God (Rv 1:8; 21:6) and Jesus Christ (Rv 22:13). The English equivalent is “the A and the Z.” Similar epithets are “the beginning and the end” (Rv 21:6; 22:13) and “the first and the last” (Rv 1:17; 2:8; 22:13).Such affirmations, which have their
Ancient of Days
Ancient of Days. Name of God used by Daniel to describe God as judge (Dn 7:9, 13, 22).See God, Names of.
El
El. Ancient Semitic name for deity, perhaps meaning “power” (cf. Gn 17:1); used by the Hebrews generally in a poetic sense to denote the true God of Israel. The same word was used for the senior Canaanite god and the god in Ugaritic mythology. The “Il” or “El” of ancient Canaanite mythology (before 3500
Eloah
Eloah. Hebrew name for God which stresses that he alone is deserving of worship.See God, Names of.
Elohim
Elohim. General name for God in the OT. The etymology of Elohim is uncertain, but it is generally agreed that it is based on a root that means “might” or “power.” The word is plural in form, but when applied to the true God it is used in a singular sense and most frequently with verbal elements. The
Hosts, Lord of
Hosts, Lord of. OT name for God found mostly in the prophets. The hosts are the heavenly powers and angels that act at the Lord’s command.See God, Names of.
Jah
Jah. Abbreviation of the covenant name of God, Yahweh or YHWH (Jehovah, kjv; Lord, most modern translations). The fragment is often used in words and names (e.g., Hallelujah, Jahaziel).See God, Names of.
Jehovah
Jehovah. Name for God formed by adding the vowels of the Hebrew word Adonai to the consonants of the Hebrew divine name, YHWH. Out of their respect for God and their fear of defiling his name, the postexilic Jews refused to pronounce the divine name when reading Scripture. Instead they substituted Adonai,
Lord of Hosts
Lord of Hosts. OT name for God found mostly in the prophets. The hosts are the heavenly powers and angels that act at the Lord’s command.See God, names of.
Shaddai
Shaddai. Part of the Hebrew name “El Shaddai,” for God, meaning “God Almighty” (Ps 68:14).See God, Names of.
Yahweh (Deity)
Yahweh (YHWH). Most holy name for God in the OT, usually translated Lord or Jehovah. The name is also applied to Christ.See God, Names of.
The International Standard Bible Encyclopedia, Revised
Alpha And Omega
Alpha And Omega alʹfə, ō-megʹə [GK. A and Ω—‘A’ and ‘O’]. The first and last letters of the Greek alphabet, hence symbolically “beginning and end.” Cf. Theodoret Historia ecclesiastica iv.8: “We used alpha down to omega, i.e., all.” A similar expression is found in Latin (Martial v.26). In the Jewish
Ishi
Ishi ishʹī, ishʹē [Heb. ʾî‹sî—‘my husband’]. The name symbolic of Yahweh’s relation to Israel which Hosea (2:16) declares shall be used when Heb. Baali, “my lord,” has become hateful on account of its associations with the worship of the Baals.
Jah
Jah , alternate spelling of YAH . An abbreviated form of the name Yahweh (see God, Names of II.C). It occurs, e.g., in the Hebrew text of Ex. 15:2, in personal names like Adonijah (“Yah is my master”), and in the liturgical expression “hallelujah” (“praise Yah”).
Jehovah-Jireh
Jehovah-Jireh jə-hōʹvə-jiʹrə [Heb. YHWH yirʾeh—‘Yahweh will find’]. The AV and NEB transliteration of Abraham’s name for the place where Yahweh provided him a lamb as a substitute sacrifice for Isaac (Gen. 22:14). Abraham’s choice of name was no doubt based on his response to Isaac’s question (v 7)
Lord
Lord[Heb YHWH (Gen. 2:4f, 7f, etc.), ʾaḏōnāy (Gen. 15:2, 8; 18:3; etc.), yāh (Ps. 68:18 [MT 19]; 77:11 [MT 12]; etc.), ʾāḏôn (e.g., Gen. 19:2), baʿal—‘master’ (Nu. 21:28; Isa. 16:8), geḇîr—‘lord, master’ (Gen. 27:29, 37), seren—‘prince, tyrant’ (Jgs. 3:3; 16:5; etc.), śar—‘leader, chief’ (Jgs.
Tyndale Bible Dictionary
Spirit of God
SPIRIT OF GOD Description of God in action, God in motion. The word “spirit” (Hebrew, ruach; Greek, pneuma) is the word used from ancient times to describe and explain the experience of divine power working in, upon, and around people.In the Old Testament There are three basic meanings evident in the
Almighty
ALMIGHTY Divine name found in several books of the Bible but particularly in the books of Job and Revelation. See God, Names of.
Alpha and Omega
ALPHA AND OMEGA Phrase used as a title in the NT for both God (Rv 1:8; 21:6) and Jesus Christ (Rv 22:13). The English equivalent is “the A and the Z.” Similar epithets are “the beginning and the end” (Rv 21:6; 22:13) and “the first and the last” (Rv 1:17; 2:8; 22:13).Alpha and Omega in GreekSuch
Ancient of Days, Ancient One
ANCIENT OF DAYS*, ANCIENT ONE Name of God used by Daniel to describe God as judge (Dn 7:9, 13, 22). See God, Names of.
El
EL* Ancient Semitic name for deity, perhaps meaning “power” (cf. Gn 17:1); used by the Hebrews generally in a poetic sense to denote the true God of Israel. The same word was used for the senior Canaanite god and the god in Ugaritic mythology. The “Il” or “El” of ancient Canaanite mythology (before 3500
Eloah
ELOAH* Hebrew name for God stressing that he alone is deserving of worship. See God, Names of.
Elohim
ELOHIM* General name for God in the OT. The etymology of Elohim is uncertain, but it is generally agreed that it is based on a root that means “might” or “power.” The word is plural in form, but when applied to the true God, it is used in a singular sense and most frequently with verbal elements. The
Hosts, Lord of
HOSTS*, LORD OF Old Testament name for God found mostly in the prophets. The hosts are the heavenly powers and angels that act at the Lord’s command. See God, Names of; Host, Host of Heaven.
Jah
JAH* Abbreviation of the covenant name of God, YHWH or Yahweh (“Jehovah,” kjv; “Lord,” most modern translations). The fragment is often used in words and names (e.g., Hallelujah, Jahaziel). See God, Names of.
Jehovah
JEHOVAH* Name for God formed by adding the vowels of the Hebrew word Adonai to the consonants of the Hebrew divine name, YHWH. Out of their respect for God and their fear of defiling his name, the postexilic Jews refused to pronounce the divine name when reading Scripture. Instead, they substituted Adonai,
Lord of Hosts
LORD OF HOSTS* Old Testament name for God found mostly in the prophets. The hosts are the heavenly powers and angels that act at the Lord’s command. See God, Names of.
Shaddai
SHADDAI* Part of the Hebrew name El Shaddai for God, meaning “God Almighty” (Ps 68:14). See God, Names of.
Trinity
TRINITY* Term designating the three members of the triune God: the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit.The word “Trinity” does not appear in the Bible; it was created by scholars to describe the three members of the Godhead. Throughout the Bible, God is presented as being Father, Son, and Spirit—not three
Yahweh (Deity)
YAHWEH* (Yhwh) Most holy name for God in the OT, usually translated “Lord.” See God, Names of (Yahweh).
The HarperCollins Bible Dictionary (Revised and Updated)
God, God
God, god. In English Bibles, the word “God” (capitalized) is used to refer to the deity worshiped by Jews and Christians, and the word “god” (lowercase), to any deity worshiped by other peoples. In the Hebrew Bible, the word “God” usually translates the Hebrew word el or its plural form, ’elohim. The
Ancient One
Ancient One, an appellation for God used three times in the nrsv in the account of Daniel’s eschatological vision of four beasts (7:9, 13, 22). In many other English versions (e.g., kjv, niv), it is translated “Ancient of Days.” The expression in Aramaic literally means “advanced in days,” but it is
El
El, a generic word for “god” in the ancient Semitic languages. The word could be used as either a proper or common noun. As a proper noun, El normally refers to a specific Canaanite god, regarded as the ruler among the gods, but the Bible also speaks of El as “the God of Israel” (Gen. 33:20). In this
El Shaddai
El Shaddai (el shad´i), a name for God used in stories of Israel’s ancestors (Abraham, Sarah, Isaac, Rebekah, Jacob, Leah, Zilpah, Rachel, and Bilhah). It is regularly translated “God Almighty” in the nrsv. Apart from passages dealing with those ancestors (Gen. 17:1; 28:3; 35:11; 43:14; 48:3) it occurs
Holy One of Israel, The
Holy One of Israel, the, a term for God. In the Bible the phrase is used frequently by the Hebrew prophets, especially Isaiah, as a title for Israel’s God (Isa. 1:4; 5:19, 24; 10:17, 20; 40:25; 41:14, 16, 20; 43:3, 14–15). The phrase also appears in the Psalms (71:22; 78:41; 89:18). In the nt, “Holy
Jehovah
Jehovah (ji-hoh´vuh), an English spelling of the name of God used four times in the kjv (Exod. 6:3; Ps. 83:18; Isa. 12:2; 26:4). The word is formed by adding vowels to an English transliteration of the Hebrew Tetragrammaton, or four consonants that stand for God’s name, which is not to be pronounced
Lord
lord (Heb. ’adon; Gk. kyrios), a title of dignity and honor acknowledging the power and authority of the one so addressed.1 When used to address an individual and not as a title for God or Christ, a term conveying esteem for a male ruler on behalf of his subjects (e.g., Num. 32:25; cf. Acts 25:26),
Lord of Hosts
Lord of hosts (“Lord of hosts”), a term describing God in command of all the forces that operate throughout creation (e.g., Ps. 89:6–8). It is an ancient title for God, who, in the role of divine warrior, was the leader of either the armies of Israel, the celestial armies of supernatural warriors, or
Most High
Most High, the usual translation of a Hebrew adjective meaning “high” or “exalted” when applied to God. Taken from Canaanite culture (cf. Gen. 14:19–20), it became a popular name for God in the Hebrew Bible (e.g., Pss. 7:17; 21:7; 91:1) and, in Greek translation, it appears also in the nt (e.g., Mark
Yahweh
Yahweh (yah´weh), the most important name for God in the Hebrew Bible. The name is formed from the Tetragrammaton, i.e., the consonants YHWH, which occur 6,828 times. Even after the vocalization of the Hebrew text, God’s name was traditionally written without vowels to discourage people from speaking
The Wycliffe Bible Encyclopedia
God
GOD. The Bible stresses that man as a creature was especially made for knowledge of his Creator, who reveals Himself to man in nature, in conscience, and, moreover, in particular historical events. This divine disclosure, climaxed in Jesus Christ as God’s self-revelation in flesh, is authoritatively
Father, God the
FATHER, GOD THE. In four senses GOD is Father: as Creator, as Father of Israel, as Father of Christ, and as Father of believers.God is Father of mankind by creation (Acts 17:28–29; Lk 3:38; cf. Gen 1:27; Jas 3:9). The fatherhood of God in this sense is not a frequent subject in the Bible. Angels are
Almighty
ALMIGHTY. Used 48 times in the OT, of which 31 are in the book of Job, to translate Heb. shaddai. See God, Names and Titles of; El.
Alpha and Omega
ALPHA AND OMEGA. The first and last letters of the Gr. alphabet, used in Rev 1:8; 21:6 as a title of God, and in Rev 22:13 of Christ. In the latter reference the added phrases give the meaning of the expression: “the beginning and the end, the first and the last.” Additional parallel phrases indicating
Ancient of Days
ANCIENT OF DAYS. This expression appears only three times, all in Aramaic, in Dan 7:9, 13, 22. Though the second and third appearances are properly translated with the article as “the Ancient of Days,” this is only by way of identifying the person so designated with that of v. 9 where there should be
El
EL. The generic name for Deity shared by Hebrews (’el) and Canaanites, appearing in the cognate form ilu in Akkadian. allah in Arabic. It is seldom found in the OT except in poetical passages. When it does occur in prose narratives, it is usually in titles, such as El Roi (Gen 16:13, ASV marg.), El Shaddai
Elohim
ELOHIM. A plural form of the Heb. noun ’lôah describing Deity. Some erroneously regard it as the plural of El (q.v.), but it is not from the same root. It is usually translated “God,” although sometimes it is a true plural and must be understood as “gods” (Ex 12:12; Gen 35:2, 4; Deut 29:18; 32:17).
Highest
HIGHEST1. Superlative of the adjective “high.” It is used in the KJV in the ordinary sense of elevation (Ezk 4:17; RSV “top”), and as the translation of idioms implying quality rather than elevation; e.g., rō˒sh, “head,” translated “highest” in KJV, and “first” in RSV (Prov 8:26); prōtoklisia, “first
I Am
I AMThe name God gave Himself when He commissioned Moses to deliver the Israelites from Egypt (Ex 3:14). God is the one independent, entirely self-subsistent Being in the universe. All that is, depends upon Him (Gen 1:1; cf. Col 1:17; Heb 1:3, 10). He does not need anyone or anything, since in Himself
Jah
JAH. An abbreviated form of the sacred name Yahweh. It is found in poetry, as in (Ps 68:4; 118:4), ASV marg., and in various other places where it is rendered Lord in the KJV. See God, Names of, Lord.
Jehovah-Jireh
JEHOVAH-JIREH. The phrase means “Jehovah (Yahweh) sees,” or “Jehovah (Yahweh) will provide.” It refers to the place named by Abraham when the ram appeared in the thicket and was sacrificed instead of Isaac (Gen 22:14, KJV). See God, Names and Titles of.
Most High
MOST HIGH. The Heb. term ˓elyôn in the title ˒El ˓Elyôn. “most lofty,” “most high God,” used of Yahweh as supreme in the OT (Gen 14:18; Ps 7:17; 9:2; Isa 14:14; etc.). According to the Ugaritic tablets the cognate name ˓Aliyy was given to Baal by the Canaanites (ANET, p. 148), and the term was used
Shaddai
SHADDAI. The transliteration of the Heb. word shadday regularly translated “almighty.” The root idea of the verb form ˒ăbôdâshādad from which it probably is derived means to deal violently; thus the derived substantive describes one who possesses such overwhelming power. The word itself does not
Trinity
TRINITY. The early church, opposing polytheism with the OT teaching that there is only one God, was soon forced to ask, Who is Jesus Christ? Was He a mere man? Is He an angel? Or is He God? And if He is God, are there two Gods?Near the beginning of the 4th cen. strong party in the church, under the
The New Bible Dictionary, Third Edition
God
GOD is and he may be known. These two affirmations form the foundation and inspiration of all true religion. The first is an affirmation of faith, the second of experience. Since the existence of God is not subject to scientific proof, it must be a postulate of faith; and since God transcends all his
Almighty
ALMIGHTY. Used of God 48 times in the OT (31 of them in Job) to translate Heb. šaddai, and following lxx in some verses, Gk. pantokrattōr. Interpreted by early Jewish commentators as ‘the all-sufficient’ (hikanos in Jewish—Greek OT versions of 2nd century ad and later). Modern scholars offer a wide
Alpha and Omega
ALPHA AND OMEGA. This juxtaposition of the first and last letters of the Gk. alphabet, corresponding to the Heb. ’alēp and tāw, is used in Rev. alone as a self-designation of both God (Rev. 1:8; 21:6, where ‘the Alpha and the Omega’ is explained by the parallel ‘the beginning and the end’) and Christ
Ishi
ISHI (Heb. ’îšî ‘my husband’). In Ho. 2:16 the name which the Israelites were to use for God, to supersede ‘Baali’ with its pagan associations.J. D. Douglas.
Trinity
TRINITY. The term ‘Trinity’ is not itself found in the Bible. It was first used by Tertullian at the close of the 2nd century, but received wide currency and formal elucidation only in the 4th and 5th centuries. Three affirmations are central to the historic doctrine of the Trinity: 1. there is but one
Eerdmans Dictionary of the Bible
God
GodA generic word for the deity, used to refer to the God of Israel (Heb. ēl/ʾĕlōhɩ̂m) and the Christian community (Gk. theós) as well as the gods of other peoples. The word also becomes a name for the deity of the believing community and is used in direct address (e.g., Ps. 22:1 [MT 2]; Mark 15:34).
Almighty
AlmightyAn epithet of God (Heb. šadday), derived from the patriarchal deity El Shaddai (cf. LXX Gk. pantokrátōr). The name is similar in meaning to epithets of the Amorite Amurru (bēl šadē), Canaanite Hadad (baʿal ṣapōn), and Hurrian El (ʾil paban-Di-wi-ni) and may have been associated with theophanies
Alpha and Omega
Alpha and OmegaThe first and last characters of the Greek alphabet. The statement “I am the alpha and omega” is attributed to God (Rev. 1:8; 21:6) and to Jesus (22:13), explained as “the beginning and the end” (21:6; 22:13) and “the first and the last” (1:17; 2:8; 22:13). Likely all three phrases allude
Ancient of Days
Ancient of DaysAram. ʿattɩ̂q yômɩ̂n appears in the “throne vision” of Dan. 7:9–14, after the initial appearance of the four great beasts who rise from the sea (cf. 7:22). Such a term in reference to God, presumably the referent here, is unprecedented in the Hebrew texts, although associations with
El
El (Heb. ʾēl)In many West Semitic languages the name of El is the same as the word for “god,” perhaps evidence that El was the pre-eminent god of older West Semitic pantheons (or possibly divinity incarnate). Although the etymology is uncertain, the word may derive from *ʾwl, “to be in front” or “to
El Elyon
El Elyon (Heb. ʾēl ʿelyôn)A name of God, translated “Most High” (cf. Ugar. ʿly). Generally regarded as having derived from the Canaanite creator god worshipped at pre-Israelite Jerusalem (Salem; cf. Gen. 14:18–20), it was adapted as an epithet of Yahweh (cf. Gen. 14:22; Ps. 7:17; 91:9). It is found
El Shaddai
El Shaddai (Heb. ʾēl šadday)A name of God (Exod. 6:3). It was this name by which the patriarchs and matriarchs of Israel knew God (e.g., Gen. 17:1; 28:3; 35:11), in contrast to the name shared with Moses, Yahweh (Exod. 6:3). Over time, El Shaddai became identified with Yahweh.The exact origin, history,
Eloah
Eloah (Heb. ʾĕlôah)A Hebrew name for God, occurring most frequently in biblical texts where non-Israelites would not be familiar with the names of God associated with the tradition history of Israel. Many scholars believe that Eloah could be a later singular form of Elohim. While the word often refers
Elohim
Elohim (Heb. ʾĕlōhɩ̂m)The most frequent generic name for God in the OT; possibly a plural of Eloah, itself an expansion of El, “god.”Elohim most naturally refers to a plurality of gods, e.g., those of Egypt (Exod. 12:12), Syria, Sidon, Moab, the Ammonites and the Philistines (Judg. 10:6), and the
Holy One of Israel
Holy One of IsraelA title for Yahweh that appears primarily in Isaiah. The name emphasizes the elements of God’s moral holiness and special relationship with the entire people of Israel. The title probably arose in the cultus, which emphasized God’s holiness, as the theme of the Holiness Code shows:
I Am Who I Am
I Am Who I AmExplanation of Yahweh, the covenant name of the God of Israel, given to Moses when he encountered the burning bush (Exod. 3:14; Heb. ʾehyeh ʾăšer ʾehyeh). It is also rendered “I will be what I will be” or perhaps “I create what (ever) I create.”See Yahweh.Robert E. Stone, II
Jehovah
Jehovah (Heb. yĕhōwāh)A name of God, devised ca. the 16th century c.e. by artificially combining the consonants of the name Yahweh (YHWH; held by the Jews to be unutterable) and the vowels of the substitute name Adonai (“the Lord”).See Yahweh.
Jehovah-Jireh
Jehovah-Jireh (Heb. YHWH yirʾeh)The name given by Abraham to the place where God provided him a ram to be offered in place of Isaac (Gen. 22:14; NRSV “the Lord will provide”). The location remains uncertain, although tradition favors the site of the Solomonic temple; an alternate suggestion is the sanctuary
Lord
Lord (DIVINE TITLE)“Lord” as a title for God is analogous to its use for human rulers; it connotes superiority and authority. In the OT its counterpoint is theophoric names containing the word “servant” (e.g., Obadiah, “servant of Yahweh”). The formulation ʾăḏōnāy (“my God”) refers only to Yahweh
Lord of Hosts
Lord of HostsThe most frequently used compound title for the Israelite deity in the OT (Heb. YHWH ṣĕḇāʾôṯ). A similar title is “Yahweh, God of hosts.” These epithets describe Yahweh as both divine Warrior and divine King, with “hosts” referring to both earthly (e.g., the Israelites or their armies)
Most High
Most HighAn epithet of God (Heb. ʿelyôn). Similar to forms attested in Ugaritic literature (Ugar. ʿly; cf. UT, no. 1855), it occurs in the most archaic Hebrew poetry within the patriarchal accounts (e.g., Num. 24:16; Deut. 32:8; cf. 2 Sam. 22:14 = Ps. 18:13 [MT 14]; cf. Acts 7:48). It appears also
Trinity
TrinityThe distinctive Christian understanding that the creator God disclosed in history as the God of Israel and the God and Father of Jesus Christ is tri-personal. This distinctive trinitarian understanding has been maintained, on the one hand, against modalism which asserts that the one God has disclosed
Yahweh
YahwehThe God of Israel. Shortened forms occur in Israelite names (yĕhô and at the beginning and yāhû and at the end), and in “Hallelujah” (“Praise Yah”). The precise pronunciation is uncertain, since from the Persian period onward the sacred name was replaced by various titles and epithets.
Eerdmans Bible Dictionary
God
God. That gracious Person revealed in and through the Bible as the Sovereign Creator of the universe, and the merciful redeemer and faithful preserver of mankind.
Ishi (Name of God)
ISHI [ĭshˊĭ] (Heb. ˒îšî) (NAMEOF GOD).* Symbolic name to be used for God, representing his covenant with Israel (Hos. 2:16; RSV “my husband”).See Baali.
Almighty
Almighty (Heb. šadday, ˒ēl šadday; Gk. pantokrátōr).† An epithet of God, derived from the patriarchal deity El Shaddai (Gen. 17:1; 35:11; 49:25; RSV mg.), the “god of the mountains” (cf. Ugar. ṯdy “breast”). The name is similar in meaning to epithets of the Amorite Amurm (bêl šadē),
Alpha and Omega
Alpha and Omega [ălˊfə, ō mĕˊgə]. The first and last letters of the Greek alphabet, signifying “the beginning and the end” (Rev. 21:6), “the first and the last” (22:13; cf. Isa. 44:6; 48:12). The figure may be derived from a rabbinic expression indicating completeness, totality; e.g., at Lev. 26:3–13
Ancient of Days
Ancient of Days (Aram. ˓attîq yômîn).* A title of God in Daniel’s vision of the divine judgment (Dan. 7:9, 13, 22), based in part on the biblical view of God’s eternal existence (cf. Ps. 9:7; 29:10; 90:2). The imagery depicts God as the divine judge presiding over the heavenly council (cf.
El
El [ĕl] (Heb. ˒ēl; Akk. ilu; Ugar. ˒il).† The common Semitic designation for a god or deity, used both as a generic term and as a proper name, particularly for the supreme high god. In Biblical Hebrew (translated “God” in most English versions) it is one of the most frequent names for the God
El Elyon
El Elyon [ĕlˊ ĕl yōnˊ] (Heb. ˒ēl ˓elyôn).* A name of God, translated “Most High” (cf. Ugar. ˓ly). Generally regarded as having derived from the Canaanite creator god worshipped at pre-Israelite Jerusalem (Salem; cf. Gen. 14:18–20), it was adapted as an epithet of Yahweh (cf. v. 22;
El Shaddai
El Shaddai [ĕl shădˊī] (Heb. ˒ēl šadday).† An ancient name for God, generally translated “God Almighty” in English versions (from LXX, NT Gk. pantokrátōr); it also occurs in the form Shaddai. Scholars generally interpret the name to mean “God of the (cosmic) mountain” (Ugar. ṯdy, originally
Eloah
Eloah [ĕ lōˊə] (Heb. ˒elôah).* A Hebrew name for God, thought by some to be a later singular derivative of Elohim (Heb. ˒elōhîm; cf. Aram. ˒elāh). The term is used both as a generic designation for a deity (e.g., Job 12:6; cf. Heb. ˒ēl, ˒elōhîm) and as a name of the Israelite God
Elohim
Elohim [ĕl ō hĭmˊ] (Heb. ˒elōhîm).†; A Hebrew term referring to gods in general, and the most frequent Old Testament name for God; it occurs most often in those passages of the Pentateuch which source critics assign to the Elohistic and Priestly sources and in certain “Elohistic Psalms.” The
Holy One of Israel
Holy One of Israel (Heb. qeḏôš yiśrā˒ēl). A name of God which represents not only his separateness and uniqueness but also his special relationship to the people Israel (cf. Exod. 19:6; Lev. 19:2). It occurs primarily in the book of Isaiah (twenty-five times; e.g., Isa. 1:4; 43:3; 60:9) and
I Am Who I Am
I Am Who I Am (Heb. ˒ehyeh ˒ašer ˒ehyeh).† An expression used to explain Yahweh, the covenant name of the God of Israel, given to Moses when he encountered the burning bush (Exod. 3:14). It is also rendered “I will be what I will be” or, perhaps more correctly, “I create what (ever) I create.” See
Jehovah
Jehovah [jə hōˊvə].† A name of God, devised during the Renaissance by artificially combining the consonants of the name Yahweh (held by the Jews to be unutterable) and the vowels of the substitute name Adonai (“the Lord”). See Yahweh.
Jehovah-Jireh
Jehovah-Jireh [jə hōˊvə jĭˊrə] (Heb. YHWH yir˒eh).* The name given by Abraham to the place where God provided him a ram to be offered in place of Isaac (Gen. 22:14, KJV; NJV “Adonai-yireh”; RSV, NIV “the Lord will provide”; cf. JB). The location remains uncertain, although tradition
Lord of Hosts
Lord of Hosts (Heb. YHWH ṣeḇā˒ôṯ; Gk. kýrios sabaṓth).* A name of God, originally an epithet denoting his function as creator and divine warrior (lit. “he creates the [heavenly] hosts”; cf. Isa. 40:26). It designates Yahweh as the national God of Israel and is probably first associated
Most High
Most High (Heb. ˓elyôn). An epithet of God. Similar to forms attested in Ugaritic literature (Ugar. ˓ly; cf. UT, nos. 1855), it occurs in the most archaic Hebrew poetry within the patriarchal accounts (e.g., Num. 24:16; Deut. 32:8; cf. 2 Sam. 22:14 par. Ps. 18:13 [MT 14]; cf. Acts 7:48).
Sabaoth, Lord of
SABAOTH [săbˊə ōth], LORD OF (Gk. kýrios sabaṓth). New Testament Greek representation of Heb. YHWH ṣeḇā˒ôṯ “the Lord of hosts” (so RSV, Rom. 9:29; Jas. 5:4; KJV “Lord of Sabbao th”). See Lord of Hosts.
Trinity
Trinity (from Lat. trinitas).† An expression for the revelation of the one God (Deut. 6:4) in three “persons,” Father, Son, and Holy Spirit. The doctrine of the trinity is a theoretical model intended to systematize various expressions in the Bible. The basis in Scripture on which it was built can
Yahweh
Yahweh [yäˊwə, yäˊwā]. † The covenant name of the God of Israel. According to the biblical account, it is the name by which God identified himself to Moses in the encounter at the burning bush (Exod. 3:14). See I Am Who I Am.Although the meaning of the name remains subject to debate, Yahweh is
Dictionary of Deities and Demons in the Bible
God (I)
GOD (I) אלהיםI. The usual word for ‘god’ in the Hebrew Bible is ʾĕlōhîm, a plural formation of ʾĕlōah, the latter being an expanded form of the Common Semitic noun ʾil (→Eloah). The term ʾĕlōhîm occurs some 2570 times in the Hebrew Bible, with a variety of meanings. In such expressions as “all
God (II)
GOD (II) ΘεόςI. The word θεός occurs 5302 times in the Greek Bible: 3984 occurrences in the LXX and 1318 in the NT. In almost all of these instances the word refers to the God of Israel, →Yahweh (and of course in the plural to pagan gods); some exceptions will be discussed below. In Greek literature
Al
ALI. Heb Ali or Eli (< ʿly) and Alu or Elu (< ʿlw) have been identified as the shorter and more ancient forms of the term →Elyon (ʿlywn), ‘Most High’, mentioned in the Hebrew Bible. Elyon is a well documented divine name or epithet in biblical traditions and poetic passages like 2 Sam 22:14 (= Ps 18:14)
Almighty
ALMIGHTY παντοκῤατωρI. pantokratōr, ‘almighty’, ‘all-sovereign’, ‘controlling all things’, as a divine designation, occurs both as an adjective and as a noun. Found relatively rarely in pagan literature, it is used frequently for God in the LXX and in early Jewish writings. In the NT this is continued
Ancient of Days
ANCIENT OF DAYSI. In a throne vision with mythological traits, God is depicted as the ʿattîq yômîn/yômayyāʾ, traditionally rendered as ‘the Ancient of Days’ (Dan 7:9, 13, 22). The expression is to be interpreted as a construct chain expressing a genetivus partitivus. The basic meaning of the common
El
EL אלI. The name El, ʾēl, il(u), is, with the exception of Ethiopic, common Semitic and originally means →God. Etymologically the origin of the appellative cannot be determined with certainty. Most likely, the noun can be derived from the verb ʾwl (the root ʾlh has also been suggested) ‘to be strong’
Eloah
ELOAH אלהI. The Hebrew word ʾĕlōah is derived from a base ʾilāh-, perhaps a secondary form of the Common Semitic word ʾil-, ‘god’. Cognate terms are known from Ugaritic, Aramaic, and Arabic/Arabian. The relationship between the common noun and the divine name is complicated and it varies considerably
El-Olam
EL-OLAM אל עולםI. In the Old Testament, the divine name ʾĒl ʿôlām is attested in Gen 21:33, i.e. in the conclusion of the story of Abraham’s encounter with the Philistine king Abimelek in Beersheba (Gen 21:20–34). After having attested—by the token of seven ewe lambs—that he himself has dug the well
El-Roi
EL-ROI אל ראיI. The name ʾĒl roʾî (El/god of seeing/vision) is attested only once in the OT, in Gen 16:13. It is best interpreted as a pseudo-archaic divine name inserted by a later redactor of Gen 16.II. The name El-roi is given by Hagar, →Sarah’s runaway and pregnant maid, after her flight into
Elyon
ELYON עליוןI. Derived from the Hebrew verb ʿālâ, meaning ‘to ascend’, ʿelyôn in the OT may be used either as an adjective, describing something that is spatially higher than something else (‘upper’, ‘highest’), or as a substantive, used primarily in reference to the ‘most high’ deity. In Ps 89:27,
Fear of Isaac
FEAR OF ISAAC פחד יצחקI. No definite interpretation can be given for the expression paḥad yiṣḥāq. It only occurs in Gen 31:42, 53 (in the latter verse as paḥad ʾābîw yiṣḥāq). Paḥad yiṣḥāq was interpreted as a divine name by Alt (1929) because of its archaic impression (cf. ʾăbîr yaʿăqŏb)
Holy One
HOLY ONE קדושׁI. The Hebrew root qdš indicates ‘to be reserved for a god, to be sacred’ and is frequently used in the Hebrew Bible. A number of nominative forms are derived from this root: qādēš ‘prostitute’ and qōdeš ‘sacred object, sacred place, holiness’. The adjective qādôš, ‘the Holy One’,
Hypsistos
HYPSISTOS ὁ ὕ ψιστοςI. ̔́ Υψιστος is a superlative form from the adverb ὕ ψι (there is no positive adj.) “most high, highest”. With the article it serves as a noun, having the sense “the most high” or “the highest”. In the Greek translations of the Hebrew Bible עליון‎ (→Elyon) is always translated
Mighty One of Jacob
MIGHTY ONE OF JACOB אביר יעקבI. ‘The mighty one of Jacob’ was interpreted as a divine name by Alt (1929). He classified it as a designation of one of the anonymous gods ‘of the father’. The only place where it may occur as a proper name is Gen 49:24; elsewhere it is always an epithet of →Yahweh (Isa
Shadday
SHADDAY שׁדיI. Shadday is an abbreviation for ʾēl šad(d)ay, “God of the Wilderness”. The name occurs 48 times in the OT; the occurrence in Job 19:29 is disputed. The longer form is attested 7 times: Gen 17:1; 28:3; 35:11; 43:14; 48:3; Exod 6:3; Ezek 10:5; šadday on its own occurs 41 times: Gen 49:25;
Yahweh
YAHWEH יהוהI. Yahweh is the name of the official god of Israel, both in the northern kingdom and in Judah. Since the Achaemenid period, religious scruples led to the custom of not pronoucing the name of Yahweh; in the liturgy as well as in everyday life, such expressions as ‘the →Lord’ (ʾădōnāy,
Yahweh Zebaoth
YAHWEH ZEBAOTH יהוה צבאותI. “Yahweh Zebaoth” occurs 284 times as a divine name in the Heb Bible; 121 of these occurrences can be characterized as free, non-formulaic usage. This expression had a prominent function as a cultic name of Yahweh in Shiloh and Jerusalem. Serving as an important divine epithet
Dictionary of Jesus and the Gospels
God
GodIn the canonical Gospels, “God” (theos) is the traditional deity of ancient Israel referred to in the OT; and, as everywhere in the NT, the exclusivist mono theism of ancient Jewish piety, which involves a rejection of all other deities, is the religious orientation adapted to early Christian devotion