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Baker Encyclopedia of the Bible
Bitumen
Bitumen. Asphalt as found in its natural state; pitch, tar. Bitumen (kjv slime) was used for mortar in the tower of Babel’s construction (Gn 11:3) and to seal the reed basket in which baby Moses was concealed (Ex 2:3). In Palestine, the Valley of Siddim was dotted with numerous bitumen pits into which
Slime
Slime. kjv rendering of asphalt or bitumen in Genesis 11:3 and Exodus 2:3.See Asphalt; Bitumen.
The International Standard Bible Encyclopedia, Revised
Bitumen
Bitumen [Heb. ḥēmār]; AV SLIME (Gen. 11:3; 14:10; Ex. 2:3); NEB also CLAY (Ex. 2:3). Heb. ḥēmār (LXX ásphaltos) stands for the more viscous natural hydro-carbons, also called asphalts. One such bitumenous material is found in solid black lumps in the cretaceous limestone on the west bank of the
Pitch
Pitch [Heb. kōp̱er] (Gen. 6:14); [zep̱eṯ] (Ex. 2:3; Isa. 34:9); NEB also TAR (Ex. 2:3). A viscous, sticky, flammable, hydrocarbon substance distilled from petroleum or coal tar and used for water-proofing, pavements, roofing and, in ancient Mesopotamia, mortar.In Gen. 6:14 the term kōp̱er clearly
Slime
Slime [Heb. rîr—‘spittle, slobber’] (Job 6:6); AV WHITE OF AN EGG; NEB JUICE; [temes—‘melting away’] (“dissolves into slime,” Ps. 58:8 [MT 9]; AV “which melteth”; NEB “which melts away.”The Heb. rîr is a bland viscous fluid that exudes from an unidentifiable plant (see the comms). Job 6:6 uses this
Tyndale Bible Dictionary
Asphalt
ASPHALT Brown or black tarlike substance, a variety of bitumen, obtained in ancient times from natural oil seeps and used for mortar and caulking. Mortar, pitch, slime, and tar are other translations of the related terms in Hebrew. See Minerals and Metals; Bitumen.
Bitumen
BITUMEN* Asphalt as found in its natural state; pitch, tar. “Bitumen” (kjv “slime”) was used for mortar in the Tower of Babel’s construction (Gn 11:3) and to seal the reed basket in which baby Moses was concealed (Ex 2:3). In Israel, the valley of Siddim was dotted with numerous bitumen pits into which
Slime
SLIME* kjv rendering of “asphalt” or “bitumen” in Genesis 11:3 and Exodus 2:3. See Asphalt; Bitumen.
The HarperCollins Bible Dictionary (Revised and Updated)
Bitumen
bitumen, a type of asphalt or mineral pitch, either occurring naturally or found as a by-product of burning coal or wood. The kjv translates it as “slime.” Throughout antiquity this black sticky substance was used as an adhesive or caulk. For example, flint knife blades were set into a sickle haft filled
Pitch
pitch, a brown-black, gummy substance used both as an adhesive and for waterproofing. Resinous pitches are derived from conifers such as pine. Tarlike mineral pitches can be derived from natural asphalt or bitumen deposits or as by-products of petroleum processing. The Dead Sea area provides natural
The New Bible Dictionary, Third Edition
Bitumen
BITUMEN. In the evv of the OT the Hebrew words kōp̱er (Gn. 6:14) and zep̱eṯ (Ex. 2:3; Is. 34:9) are rendered ‘pitch’, and ḥēmār (Gn. 11:3; 14:10; Ex. 2:3) ‘bitumen’ (AV ‘slime’). It would seem better, however, to render all three terms by ‘bitumen’, since, while pitch is strictly the product of
Eerdmans Dictionary of the Bible
Bitumen
BitumenA term used to describe all hydrocarbons that are soluble in carbon disulfide, including gases, easily mobile liquids, viscous liquids, and solids. In the natural environment bitumen is a dark-colored, comparatively hard, nonvolatile substance. Its nonmineral constituents are fusible and largely
Pitch
PitchA naturally occurring combustible substance used in antiquity as an adhesive and a sealant. The related English words “asphalt” and “tar” reflect something of the nature of the material, although they indicate manufactured materials. Pitch apparently was common in the Dead Sea area but was also
Eerdmans Bible Dictionary
Bitumen
Bitumen. A natural hydrocarbon also called asphalt (cf. LXX Gk. ásphaltos Heb. ḥēmār from ḥāmar “cover” or “ferment” [KoB, p. 312]), found in clumps on the west bank of the Dead Sea, which the Romans and Greeks named “Sea of Asphalt.” When heated it becomes a suitable substance for caulking
Pitch
Pitch (Heb. kōp̱er, zep̱eṯ). A flammable liquid hydrocarbon distilled from plant resins or occurring with natural asphalt. In ancient times pitch was used to seal boats and baskets (Gen. 6:14; Exod. 2:3) and for mortar. Eruptions of pitch are part of a portrayal of judgment at Isa. 34:9. See Bitumen.
The Archaeological Encyclopedia of the Holy Land
Asphalt; Bitumen
ASPHALT; BITUMEN A blackish mineral referred to several times in the Bible. Of the bituminous substances, asphalt was known as homer in Hebrew (Gen. 14:10: Authorized Version: ‘slime’). There were pits of it in the valley of Siddim, in which lay the cities of Sodom and Gomorrah. According to the Bible
Catholic Bible Dictionary
Bitumen
BITUMEN A black mineral pitch found especially in the region of the Dead Sea (Gen 14:10). It was used to seal Noah’s ark (Gen 6:14), as mortar for the bricks in the construction of the Tower of Babel (Gen 11:3), and for waterproofing the basket that carried the infant Moses on the Nile (Exod 2:3).
Smith’s Bible Dictionary
Pitch
Pitch. The three Hebrew words so translated all represent the same object, viz., mineral pitch or asphalt in its different aspects. Asphalt is an opaque, inflammable substance, which bubbles up from subterranean fountains in a liquid state, and hardens by exposure to the air, but readily melts under
Slime
Slime, translated bitumen in the Vulgate. The three instances in which it is mentioned in the Old Testament are illustrated by travellers and historians. It is first spoken of as used for cement by the builders in the plain of Shinar or Babylonia. Gen. 11:3. The bitumen pits in the vale of Siddim are
The New Unger’s Bible Dictionary
Asphalt
ASPHALT. Asphalt was extensively procured from the Dead Sea in ancient times, which was one of the major sources of this building material. The Nabataeans controlled the Dead Sea bitumen industry in the Greco-Roman period (Diodorus Siculus Historia 2. 48; 19. 98–100); F. R. Clapp, “Geology and Bitumen
Easton’s Bible Dictionary
Bitumen
BitumenGen. 11:3, R.V., margin, rendered in the A.V. “slime”), a mineral pitch. With this the ark was pitched (6:14. See also Ex. 2:3.) (See SLIME.)
Pitch
Pitch(Gen. 6:14), asphalt or bitumen in its soft state, called “slime” (Gen. 11:3; 14:10; Ex. 2:3), found in pits near the Dead Sea (q.v.). It was used for various purposes, as the coating of the outside of vessels and in building. Allusion is made in Isa. 34:9 to its inflammable character. (See SLIME.)
Slime
Slime(Gen. 11:3; LXX., “asphalt;” R.V. marg., “bitumen”). The vale of Siddim was full of slime pits (14:10). Jochebed daubed the “ark of bulrushes” with slime (Ex. 2:3). (See PITCH.)