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Geshem
Excerpt from the Lexham Bible Dictionary, the most advanced Bible dictionary.
An Arab ruler who opposed Nehemiah’s rebuilding of the wall of Jerusalem (Neh 2:19; 6:1–2, 6). Geshem, along with Sanballat and Tobiah, opposed Nehemiah throughout his career in Judah. Even after Jerusalem’s wall had been built, they tried to draw him out into the plains of Ono in order to ambush him.Geshem’s name also occurs in the book of Nehemiah in the form Gashmu, an Assyrian form (Neh 6:6). Outside the Bible, his name also appears as “king of Kedar” in an inscription on a silver vessel found at Tell el-Mashkuta in lower Egypt and dated toward the end of the 5th century bc. The name also appears in a later inscription found at Dedan.
Dictionaries
The Lexham Bible Dictionary
Geshem
Geshem (גַּשְׁמוּ‎, gashmu; גֶּשֶׁם‎, geshem). An Arab ruler who opposed Nehemiah’s rebuilding of the wall of Jerusalem (Neh 2:19; 6:1–2, 6). Geshem, along with Sanballat and Tobiah, opposed Nehemiah throughout his career in Judah. Even after Jerusalem’s wall had been built, they tried to draw him out
The Anchor Yale Bible Dictionary
Geshem (Person)
GESHEM (PERSON) [Heb gešem (גֶּשֶׁם)]. The “Arabian” who opposed Nehemiah’s plans for rebuilding the Jerusalem wall (Neh 2:19). The gentilic following his name (hāʿarbı̂ “the Arabian”) indicated his position of authority under Persian rule, specifically, the region over which he had governance. Sanballat
Baker Encyclopedia of the Bible
Geshem
Geshem. Arab opponent of Nehemiah who derided those seeking to rebuild the walls of Jerusalem (Neh 2:19; 6:1, 2, 6, kjv Gashmu). He was likely an inhabitant of the North Arabian desert and has been identified with Gashm, son of Shahr in a Dedanite Arabian inscription. Like Sanballat and Tobiah, his economic
The International Standard Bible Encyclopedia, Revised
Geshem
Geshem geʹshəm [Heb. gešem, gašmû; Gk. Gēsam, ‘rain storm’]. An Arab, probably chief of an Arabian tribe that either settled in southern Palestine during the Exile in Babylon or was settled in or near Samaria by Sargon (Neh. 2:19; 6:1f, 6). He was a confederate of Sanballat and Tobiah and strenuously
Gashmu
Gashmu gashʹmoo̅ (Neh. 6:6, AV, NEB, RSV mg). The name Geshem (RSV) occurs in Neh. 6:6 for Heb gašmû.
Tyndale Bible Dictionary
Geshem
GESHEM Arab opponent of Nehemiah who derided those seeking to rebuild the walls of Jerusalem (Neh 2:19; 6:1–6). He was likely an inhabitant of the north Arabian Desert and has been identified with Gashmu son of Shahr in a Dedanite Arabian inscription. Like Sanballat and Tobiah, his economic interests
The HarperCollins Bible Dictionary (Revised and Updated)
Geshem
Geshem (gesh´uhm), an opponent of Nehemiah who ridiculed the plan to rebuild Jerusalem’s walls and subsequently plotted against him (Neh. 2:19; 6:1–9). Identified as “an Arab,” he is apparently the same person identified in nonbiblical sources as the king of Kedar, an Arabian province just south of Judah.
Arab
Arab (air´uhb).1 An inhabitant of Arabia. The term is applied to Geshem, who opposed rebuilding Jerusalem, in Neh. 2:19; 6:1. Isa. 13:20 uses the absence of Arab nomadic campsites as a symbol of desolation. Jeremiah refers to an Arab (nrsv: “nomad”; Heb. ‘arab) waiting for lovers in the wilderness as
The Wycliffe Bible Encyclopedia
Geshem
GESHEM. An Arabian who was one of the chief opponents of Nehemiah’s plan to rebuild the wall of Jerusalem in 445 b.c. (cf. (Neh 2:19; 6:1–2). He is almost certainly the Gashmu in (Neh 6:6). In these verses he is simply referred to as “the Arabian,” but the probability is that the ruler (king) of the
Gashmu
GASHMU. A variant form of Geshem (q.v.) found only in Neh 6:6. This Arab was an associate of Sanballat and Tobiah in their opposition to Nehemiah.
The New Bible Dictionary, Third Edition
Geshem
GESHEM. Mentioned in Ne. 2:19; 6:1–2 as one of the chief opponents of Nehemiah, and almost certainly the Gashmu of Ne. 6:6. In these passages he is called simply ‘the Arabian’, but is evidently an influential person. Two inscriptions throw a vivid light on this man. One is a memorial in ancient Dedan
Eerdmans Dictionary of the Bible
Geshem
Geshem (Heb. gešem)The “Arab” mentioned along with Sanballat, governor of Samaria, and Tobiah, an Ammonite official, who opposed Nehemiah’s plan to repair the wall around Jerusalem (Neh. 2:19). Those three sought a meeting with Nehemiah after the work commenced, but Nehemiah refused, suspecting they
Eerdmans Bible Dictionary
Geshem
Geshem [gĕshˊəm] (Heb. gešem, gašmû “rain”). An Arab (possibly Edomite) official who joined Sanballat and Tobiah in opposing Nehemiah’s reconstruction of the walls of Jerusalem (Neh. 2:19; 6:1–2). At 6:6 the KJV and JB, following the MT, call him Gashmu. Lihyanite Arabic and Aramaic inscriptions
Smith’s Bible Dictionary
Geshem
Ge´shem and Gash´mu (rain), an Arabian, mentioned in Neh. 2:19 and 6:1, 2, 6. (b.c. 446.) We may conclude that he was an inhabitant of Arabia Petræa, or of the Arabian Desert, and probably the chief of a tribe. “Gashum said it” made him a type of those who create a common report.
The New Unger’s Bible Dictionary
Geshem
GE´SHEM (geʹshem; “shower”). An Arab (Neh. 2:19; 6:1), and one of the enemies of the Jews on the return from the Exile, especially in the plots against the life of Nehemiah (6:2), 445 b.c. Geshem, we may conclude, was an inhabitant of Arabia Petraea, or of the Arabian Desert, and probably the chief of
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