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Fortification
Dictionaries
The Lexham Bible Dictionary
Fortification
Fortification The construction of protective structures such as walls, towers, and gates for protection or engagement in warfare.
The Anchor Yale Bible Dictionary
Fortifications (Levant)
FORTIFICATIONS (LEVANT). Fortifications are the most important component of an ancient urban settlement, aimed at preventing hostile elements from entering the settlement, as well as serving to demarcate the limits of the city. The impact of new weapons on the shape of a city’s fortifications was much
Baker Encyclopedia of the Bible
Fortification
Fort, Fortification. Walls, citadels, and sometimes moats protecting most cities in the ancient world. Fortifications followed the natural contour of the area encircling a city. Early city defenses consisted of simple banks of earth tossed against the walls and outer structures to make it difficult for
The International Standard Bible Encyclopedia, Revised
Fortification
Fortification A structure built to defend a place or a position. Two basic types of fortifications developed, temporary and permanent. Temporary defenses thrown up in the field while combatants are facing the enemy or when contact is near are called field fortifications. Field fortifications, e.g.,
Fenced Cities
Fenced Cities (AV Nu. 32:17, 36; Dt. 3:5; 9:1; 2 Ch. 8:5; 11:23; etc.). The AV uses “fenced” in the obsolete sense of “fortified” (cf. RSV “fortified cities”). See Fortification.
Tyndale Bible Dictionary
Fort, Fortification
FORT, FORTIFICATION Walls, citadels, and sometimes moats protecting most cities in the ancient world. Fortifications followed the natural contour of the area encircling a city. Early city defenses consisted of simple banks of earth tossed against the walls and outer structures to make it difficult for
The HarperCollins Bible Dictionary (Revised and Updated)
Fort, Fortress
fort, fortress. In biblical times, forts were often constructed along borders or trade routes, and cities were typically walled so as to become fortresses themselves (cf. the expression “fortress city” in Neh. 9:5). Already at the time of the exodus, Deut. 3:5 mentions “fortress towns with high walls,
The Wycliffe Bible Encyclopedia
City, Fenced
CITY, FENCED. The Heb. expressions ˓ı̂r bṣûrâ, ˓ı̂r (ham)mibsār, and ˓ı̂r mṣûrâ, are all translated “fenced city” in KJV and refer to cities surrounded by walls or fortifications as opposed to unwalled villages. Such a rendering is found in (1 Sam 6:18; 2 Sam 20:6; Jer 5:17; Ezk 36:35; Dan 11:15;
Eerdmans Dictionary of the Bible
Fortification
Fortress, FortificationFortresses generally consisted of walls, towers, and gates. Fortifications were built around major cities and at strategic positions near borders and trade routes. A few cities also had an inner fortress for additional protection.Walls built around a city provided primary defense.
The Archaeological Encyclopedia of the Holy Land
Fortifications
FORTIFICATIONSneolithic period The oldest known fortified city in Palestine is Jericho. Its first city wall and tower have been dated by Kathleen Kenyon to 7000 bc, the pre-Pottery Neolithic period (Prehistory). Three main building phases can be traced. To the first belong a solid, free-standing stone
Smith’s Bible Dictionary
Fenced cities
Fenced cities, i.e., cities fortified or defended. The fortifications of the cities of Palestine, thus regularly “fenced,” consisted of one or more walls (sometimes of thick stones, sometimes of combustible material), crowned with battlemented parapets, having towers at regular intervals, 2 Chron. 32:5;
Easton’s Bible Dictionary
Fenced cities
Fenced citiesThere were in Palestine (1) cities, (2) unwalled villages, and (3) villages with castles or towers (1 Chr. 27:25). Cities, so called, had walls, and were thus fenced. The fortifications consisted of one or two walls, on which were towers or parapets at regular intervals (2 Chr. 32:5; Jer.
Harper’s Bible Dictionary
Fenced Cities
Fenced Citiesfenced cities, a term used by the kjv where the rsv has ‘fortified cities’ (Josh. 14:12; 2 Kings 18:13; 2 Chron. 8:5). See also Forts; Walls.
Forts
Fortsforts, fortified locations, often towns. A series of forts usually implies a regional if not a state authority. A fortress system did not appear in Israel until the monarchy (eleventh-tenth centuries b.c.), although individual forts were known in the period of the judges. According to the ot,
Key passages
Jdt 4:4–5

So they sent to all the regions of Samaria, Kona, Beth-horon, Belmain, and Jericho, and to Hobah, Aesora, and the valley of Salem. And they seized in preparation all the highest points of the high mountains, and fortified the villages in them, and put aside provisions in preparation for …

Jdt 5:1

And it was reported to Holofernes, the commander-in-chief of the army of Assyria, that the children of Israel had prepared themselves for war and had closed the passes of the hills and fortified every highest point of highest mountain and set in place traps on the …

Sir 48:17

Hezekiah fortified his city and brought Gog into the midst of them. He dug the rock with iron and built wells for waters.

1 Mac 1:19

And they captured the fortified city in the land of Egypt and took the spoils of the land of Egypt.

1 Mac 1:33

And they built in the city of David a great wall and fortified towers, and it became for them as a fortress.

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Topics & Themes
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