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Firstborn redemption
The practice of redeeming firstborn children and animals from a claim of ownership of a deity. Some forms of this concept resulted in child sacrifice in the ancient near east (in that the children were not redeemed but offered as a sacrifice because the god owned the children).
Key passages
Ex 13:1–16

And Yahweh spoke to Moses, saying, “Consecrate to me every firstborn, the first offspring of every womb among the Israelites, among humans and among domestic animals; it belongs to me.” And Moses said to …

Ex 34:20

But the first offspring of a donkey you will redeem with small livestock, and if you will not redeem it, you will break its neck. Every firstborn of your sons you will redeem, and you will not appear before me empty-handed.

Nu 3:40–51

And Yahweh said to Moses, “Muster every firstborn male from the Israelites from one month and above and count their names. And you will receive the Levites for me—I am Yahweh—in the place of all the firstborn among the Israelites, and the animals of the Levites in the place of all …

Nu 8:16–18

For they are given to me exclusively from the midst of the Israelites. I have taken them for myself in place of the firstborn of every womb, every firstborn from the Israelites. For every firstborn among the Israelites is mine, both humankind and animal. On the day I destroyed every …