Earnest (pledge)
Earnest • Earnest (pledge) • Earnest Money • Earnestness • Heartfelt
The International Standard Bible Encyclopedia, Revised
Guarantee The Greek term arrabó̄n occurs three times in the NT (2 Cor. 1:22; 5:5; Eph. 1:14), translated in each case by “guarantee” in the RSV, “earnest” in the AV, and “pledge” in the NEB. It has an equivalent in Heb. ʿērāḇôn (Gen. 38:17f, 20), in Lat arrabo, in French arrhes, and in Old English
The New Bible Dictionary, Third Edition
EARNEST (Gk. arrabōn, a Semitic loan-word; Heb.‘ērāḇôn; Lat. arrha, arr(h)abo). av translation of a commercial term, probably brought W by Phoenician traders. It means, strictly, the first instalment of a gift or payment, put down as a pledge that the rest will follow later (cf. the down-payment
Eerdmans Bible Dictionary
Guarantee [Gk. arrabṓn]. A commercial term for the deposit or down payment that secures a legal claim or makes a contract binding. It is used figuratively in the New Testament for God’s gift of his Spirit to believers as a guarantee of their full inheritance in Christ (Eph. 1:14; KJV “earnest”)
Smith’s Bible Dictionary
Earnest. 2 Cor. 1:22; 5:5; Eph. 1:14. The Hebrew word was used generally for pledge, Gen. 38:17, and in its cognate forms for surety, Prov. 17:18, and hostage. 2 Kings 14:14. The Greek derivative, however, acquired a more technical sense as signifying the deposit paid by the purchaser on entering into
The New Unger’s Bible Dictionary
GUARANTEE (Gk. ˒egguos). In the highest sense the term is applied to Christ, who, in His character as mediator, is represented as “the guarantee of a better covenant” (Heb. 7:22), having made Himself responsible for all that in this covenant was required to be accomplished for the salvation of those
Easton’s Bible Dictionary
EarnestThe Spirit is the earnest of the believer’s destined inheritance (2 Cor. 1:22; 5:5; Eph. 1:14). The word thus rendered is the same as that rendered “pledge” in Gen. 38:17–20; “indeed, the Hebrew word has simply passed into the Greek and Latin languages, probably through commercial dealings with
Nelson’s New Illustrated Bible Dictionary
GUARANTEE — a promise or assurance; something given or held as security. The apostle Paul declared that the Holy Spirit, who lives in our hearts, is the guarantee that we shall receive our full inheritance from God (2 Cor. 5:5).
EARNEST — a down payment or first installment given by a buyer to a seller to bind a contract, as a promise that the full amount will be paid at a later time. Paul wrote, God has “given us the Spirit in our hearts as a deposit” (2 Cor. 1:22; earnest, KJV)—that is, as a guarantee of our inheritance (2
International Standard Bible Encyclopedia
EARNEST<ur’-nest> ([ἀῤῥαβών, arrhabon]): Found three times in the New Testament: The “earnest of our inheritance” (Ephesians 1:14); “the earnest of the Spirit” (2 Corinthians 1:22; 5:5). It has an equivalent in Hebrew `erabhon (found in Genesis 38:17, 18, 20), in Latin arrabo, French
The Westminster Bible Dictionary
Earnest, something given in advance as a pledge or assurance of more, or of good faith in a bargain or of binding a bargain. It is a mercantile term adopted by the Greeks and Romans from the Phœnicians, who were the founders of commerce, and is still good legal English. The word is used three times in
The Zondervan Encyclopedia of the Bible, Volume 2, D–G
earnest. As a noun, this English term is used by the KJV in the NT to render arrabōn G775, a word that came into Greek from a Semitic language, perhaps from the vocabulary of Phoenician traders; it is related to Hebrew ʿērābôn H6860, “pledge” (used in Gen. 38:17–20 and rendered by the lxx with arrabōn).
The International Standard Bible Encyclopaedia, Volumes 1–5
EARNEST, ûrʹnest (ἀῤῥαβών, arrhabō̇n): Found three times in the NT: The “earnest of our inheritance” (Eph 1:14); “the earnest of the Spirit” (2 Cor 1:22; 5:5). It has an equivalent in Heb ‛ērābhōn (found in Gen 38:17, 18, 20), in Lat arrabo, Fr. arrhes and the OE arles. The term is mercantile
Key passages
Ge 38:16–20

And he turned aside to her at the roadside and said, “Please come, let me come in to you,” for he did not know that she was his daughter-in-law. And she said, “What will you give to me that you may come in to me?” And he said, “I will send a kid from the goats of the flock.” And she said, “Only …

Ex 22:25–27

“ ‘If you lend money to my people, to the needy with you, you will not be to him as a creditor; you will not charge him interest. If indeed you require the cloak of your neighbor as a pledge, you will return it to him at sundown, because it is his only garment; it is his cloak for his skin. …

Le 6:1–2

Then Yahweh spoke to Moses, saying, “When a person displays infidelity against Yahweh and he deceives his fellow citizen regarding something entrusted or a pledge or stealing or he exploits his fellow citizen,

Dt 24:10–13

“When you make a loan to your neighbor, a loan of any kind, you shall not go into his house to take his pledge. You shall wait outside, and the man to whom you are lending, he shall bring the pledge outside to you. And if he is a needy man, you shall not sleep in his pledge. You shall …

Dt 24:17

You shall not subvert the rights of an alien or an orphan, and you shall not take as pledge the garment of a widow.