Dung-hill • Dunghill • Excrement • Manure
The International Standard Bible Encyclopedia, Revised
Dung [Heb. pereš] (Ex. 29:14; Lev. 4:11; 8:17; 16:27; Nu. 19:5; Mal. 2:3); NEB OFFAL; [gālal] (1 K. 14:10); [gēlel] (Job 20:7; Ezk. 4:12, 15; Zeph. 1:17); [K ḥiryyônîm, Qarēy-yônîm] (“dove’s dung,” 2 K. 6:25); NEB “locustbeans”; [dōmen] (2 K. 9:37; Ps. 83:10 [MT 11]; Jer. 8:2; 9:22; 16:4;
The HarperCollins Bible Dictionary (Revised and Updated)
dung, human or animal feces. Dried bricks of human and animal dung were used in Egypt to fuel ovens, but the Israelite concept of purity made this practice obnoxious to the Hebrews (Ezek. 4:12, 15). Still, dung was used as fertilizer (Isa. 25:10; Luke 13:8). There are several references to the scarcities
The Wycliffe Bible Encyclopedia
DUNG. In KJV “dung” is used to render nine Heb. and two Gr. words. While these possess different shades of meaning, all are used to refer to excrement—waste matter discharged from the body—either of human beings or of animals, Dung is alluded to in several ways:In connection with sacrifices. In the
DUNGHILL. In KJV “dunghill” is the rendering of several different words meaning (1) a manure pit (Isa 25:10) or heap (Ezr 6:11; Lk 14:35); (2) an ash heap or garbage dump where the poor and beggars often stayed (1 Sam 2:8; Ps 113:7; Lam 4:5).
The New Bible Dictionary, Third Edition
DUNG. The word is used in the av to translate various Heb. terms. Heb. ’aśpōṯ, usually rendered ‘dunghill’, is probably a refuse-tip, rubbish-dump or ash-heap, and is used as a simile to convey the haunt of the destitute (1 Sa. 2:8; Ps. 113:7; La. 4:5); cf. also Lk. 14:35. Jerusalem’s Dung Gate (the
Eerdmans Dictionary of the Bible
DungBoth human and animal excrement, which the ritual and priestly material categorizes as impure. In sacrifice it is to be burned, along with other impure parts of the animal, at a place removed from the congregation (Exod. 29:14; Lev. 4:11; 8:17; 16:27; cf. Num. 19:5 where the animal is burned altogether).
Eerdmans Bible Dictionary
Dung (Heb. gēlel, gālāl, ḥere˒, ḥarî, ṣepî˓ê, dōmen, pereš; Gk. skýbalon, kóprion).† Human dung was carried out of every city to a heap, also the general garbage dump (Luke 14:35), which in places long inhabited became a high “dunghill” (Heb. ˒ašpōṯ, ˒ašpôṯ; Aram. newālî,
Smith’s Bible Dictionary
Dung. The uses of dung were two-fold—as manure and as fuel. The manure consisted either of straw steeped in liquid manure, Isa. 25:10, or the sweepings, Isa. 5:25, of the streets and roads, which were carefully removed from about the houses, and collected in heaps outside the walls of the towns at fixed
Easton’s Bible Dictionary
Dung(1.) Used as manure (Luke 13:8); collected outside the city walls (Neh. 2:13). Of sacrifices, burned outside the camp (Ex. 29:14; Lev. 4:11; 8:17; Num. 19:5). To be “cast out as dung,” a figurative expression (1 Kings 14:10; 2 Kings 9:37; Jer. 8:2; Ps. 18:42), meaning to be rejected as unprofitable.
Dung-hillto sit on a, was a sign of the deepest dejection (1 Sam. 2:8; Ps. 113:7; Lam. 4:5).
Harper’s Bible Dictionary
Dungdung, human or animal feces. While dried bricks of human and animal dung were used in Egypt to fuel ovens, the Israelite concept of purity (plus the alternative fuel of Canaan’s trees) made this practice obnoxious (Ezek. 4:12, 15). Dung was used as fertilizer (Isa. 25:10; Luke 13:8) and continues
Nelson’s New Illustrated Bible Dictionary
DUNG — literally, waste produced by humans and animals as a part of the process of digesting food (Ex. 29:14; Lev. 4:11; Job 20:7). The word is also used in a general or symbolic way to describe what is useless, rejected, or despised (Jer. 16:4; refuse, NIV). It is in this sense that Paul evaluates the
Dictionary of Biblical Imagery
DungSurprisingly, references to dung can be found many times in the OT but only once in a key NT passage (Phil 3:8). “Dung” is the KJV preferred translation for several Hebrew and Greek terms. Other translations prefer to use “refuse,” “rubbish,” “waste,” “filth,” “offal,” “dirt,” “rubble” or “garbage.”
International Standard Bible Encyclopedia
DUNG; DUNG GATE<dung> ([אַשְׁפּוֹת‎, ’ashpoth], [דֹּמֶן‎, domen], [פֶּרֶשׁ‎, peresh]; [σκύβαλον, skubalon], etc.): Nine different words occurring in the Hebrew have been translated “dung” in the Old Testament. The word used to designate one of the gates of Jerusalem (’ashpoth, Nehemiah 2:13; 3:14)
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