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Cup
Excerpt from the Lexham Bible Dictionary, the most advanced Bible dictionary.
A vessel for drinking, referred to both literally and figuratively in the Bible. The word “cup” in the Bible frequently refers to the contents of a cup, not just the cup itself (Matt 26:39). It is often used figuratively for something that cannot be refused, especially something unpleasant like God’s judgments, wrath, or afflictions (e.g., Pss 11:6; 75:8; Isa 51:17; Jer 25:15; Ezek 23:31–33; Rev 14:10). Jesus used the word “cup” to refer to His sufferings (Matt 26:39) and the sorrows that those who confessed His name would feel (Matt 20:23). However, it can also be used figuratively in a positive sense (e.g., Pss 16:5; 23:5).Diviners in the ancient world used cups in their practices. The user would look into the contents of a drinking vessel and examine the patterns made when objects or drops of other liquids were allowed to fall into it. Joseph may have practiced this sort of divination, or pretended to do so (Gen 44:5). For further details on this practice, see this article: Divination.
Dictionaries
The Lexham Bible Dictionary
Cup
Cup (כּוֹס‎, kos; ποτήριον, potērion). A vessel for drinking, referred to both literally and figuratively in the Bible. The word “cup” in the Bible frequently refers to the contents of a cup, not just the cup itself (Matt 26:39). It is often used figuratively for something that cannot be refused, especially
Baker Encyclopedia of the Bible
Cup
Cup. The word may refer either to the vessel itself or to its contents and may be intended literally or figuratively.1. A small drinking vessel, made of various materials (leather, metal, or pottery), sizes, and designs.2. A figure of speech to represent one’s portion of or participation in something.
The International Standard Bible Encyclopedia, Revised
Cup
Cup [Heb. kôs, gaḇî (a)ʿ, also sap̱ (1 K. 7:50; Zec. 12:2), qaśwâ (1 Ch. 28:17), ʾaggān (Isa. 22:24); Gk. potḗrion]; AV also BOWL (gabî (a)‘, Ex. 25:31–34; 37:17–20; sap̱, 1 K. 7:50); NEB also GOBLET (Gen. 44), and cf. Zec. 12:2; “cups of mixed wine” in Isa. 65:11, RSV (NEB “bowls of spiced
Tyndale Bible Dictionary
Cup
CUP The word may refer either to the vessel itself or to its contents and may be intended literally or figuratively.1. A small drinking vessel, made of various materials (leather, metal, or pottery), sizes, and designs.2. A figure of speech to represent one’s portion of or participation in something.
The HarperCollins Bible Dictionary (Revised and Updated)
Cup
cup. Cups were usually made of pottery, but were sometimes fashioned of precious metal (Gen. 44:1–34; Jer. 51:7; Rev. 17:4; cf. the cuplike oil holder of the temple lamp, Exod. 25:31–35). They are usually associated with meals (2 Sam. 12:3; Pss. 16:5; 23:5) and are especially connected with drinking
The Wycliffe Bible Encyclopedia
Cup
The Chalice of Antioch is apparently a very early communion cup (some would date it to the first century) and may have representations of the apostles on it. MMCUP. Besides its literal use as drinking vessel, bowl, goblet or laver (see Pottery), the term is also used in a figurative sense in the Scriptures.
The New Bible Dictionary, Third Edition
Cup
CUP. The ancient cup was a bowl, wider and shallower than the normal teacup. While usually made of pottery, it was sometimes of metal (Je. 51:7).1. Heb. kôs, commonly used for a drinking-vessel, whether the pharaoh’s (Gn. 40:11) or a poor man’s (2 Sa. 12:3). This could be of a size to hold in the hand
Eerdmans Dictionary of the Bible
Cup
CupA small bowl that lacked a stem or handle, typically made of pottery but sometimes of metal, such as silver (Gen. 44:2; cf. Jer. 51:7). Such cups were the most common ceramic form represented in Iron Age domestic assemblages, and were likely used for both eating and drinking. This style of shallow,
Eerdmans Bible Dictionary
Cup
Cup. A small drinking vessel (2 Sam. 12:3), made of metal (Jer. 51:7), pottery, or leather, and usually used to serve water (Mark 9:41) or wine (e.g., Jer. 25:15). Often it symbolizes the pleasant or bitter experiences of life—the psalmist’s cup overflows with God’s goodness (Ps. 23:5); the cup of God’s
Catholic Bible Dictionary
Cup
CUP Both cups and chalices were commonly used in the ancient world for drinking and divination (Gen 44:4–5), but the term also bore a significant metaphorical meaning in Scripture, symbolizing the lot imposed by God upon people and nations. The cup might be a blessing or a curse, depending upon what
Smith’s Bible Dictionary
Cup
Cup. The cups of the Jews, whether of metal or earthenware, were possibly borrowed, in point of shape and design, from Egypt and from the Phœnicians, who were celebrated in that branch of workmanship. Egyptian cups were of various shapes, either with handles or without them. In Solomon’s time all his
The New Unger’s Bible Dictionary
Cup
CUP. The rendering, mostly in the OT, of the Heb. kōs; in the NT, of the Gk. protērion. Note that other Heb. terms are so translated as well.