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Excerpt from the Lexham Bible Dictionary, the most advanced Bible dictionary.
A form of torture and execution in the ancient world that involved fixing a person to a wooden post or tree using ropes or nails; used in the execution of Jesus.
Lexham Bible Dictionary
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The Lexham Bible Dictionary
The Anchor Yale Bible Dictionary
CRUCIFIXION. The act of nailing or binding a living victim or sometimes a dead person to a cross or stake (stauros or skolops) or a tree (xylon). Generally Herodotus uses the verb anaskolopizein of living persons and anastauroun of corpses. After him the verbs become synonyms, “to crucify.” Josephus
Baker Encyclopedia of the Bible
Crucifixion. Form of execution employed in the death of Jesus Christ. Two concepts related to crucifixion occur in Scripture: the “cross,” a pagan mode of capital punishment, and the “tree,” which was a Jewish form. Jesus’ crucifixion was the means by which he procured atonement for humanity. The term
Tyndale Bible Dictionary
CRUCIFIXION Form of execution employed in the death of Jesus Christ. Two concepts related to crucifixion occur in Scripture: the “cross,” a pagan mode of capital punishment, and the “tree,” which was a Jewish form. Jesus’ crucifixion was the means by which he procured atonement for humanity. The term
The HarperCollins Bible Dictionary (Revised and Updated)
crucifixion, a means of execution that involved fastening a person to a cross so death would be slow and painful. Grisly spectacles involving the crucifixion of sometimes hundreds or even thousands of victims were arranged for the intimidation of besieged cities, the punishment of conquered peoples,
The New Bible Dictionary, Third Edition
CROSS, CRUCIFIXION. The Gk. word for ‘cross (stauros; verb stauroō; Lat. crux, crucifigo, ‘I fasten to a cross’) means primarily an upright stake or beam, and secondarily a stake used as an instrument for punishment and execution. It is used in this latter sense in the NT. The noun occurs 28 times and
Eerdmans Dictionary of the Bible
CrucifixionA particularly horrible mode of punishment by which a person (or sometimes the corpse of an executed victim) was nailed or bound to a cross (Gk. staurós, †; also in the form of an X- or T-shaped structure), or to a stake or tree.Crucifixion (from Lat. cru., “cross,” and a form of the verb
Eerdmans Bible Dictionary
CROSS (Gk. staurós; Lat. crux), CRUCIFIXION (cf. stauróō “crucify”). † Use of an upright stake as an instrument of torture and execution attained particular significance as the culmination of Christ’s persecution and thus as a symbol of his atonement for mankind.Crucifixion is first attested
Dictionary of Paul and His Letters
CrucifixionA particularly cruel form of execution popular in the first-century Roman Empire. Numerous sources—both Christian and non-Christian—attest to the crucifixion of Jesus of Nazareth under Pontius Pilate (e.g., Mk 15:1–39 par.; Josephus Ant. 18.3.3 §§63–64; Tacitus Ann. 15.44). Outside the Gospels
Catholic Bible Dictionary
CRUCIFIXION Execution by hanging on a cross. The Romans generally reserved the gruesome punishment of crucifixion for criminals, brigands, and slaves; it was long forbidden to execute Roman citizens by this means, as attested by Cicero, who thought it improper for a citizen even to speak about the subject
The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church
crucifixion. Infliction of death by nailing or binding to a cross. It arose in the E., and was also frequently used by the Carthaginians. By the Romans it was much used as the extreme punishment for slaves, but it might also be inflicted upon any person who could not prove Roman citizenship. It was preceded