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Cockcrow
Excerpt from the Lexham Bible Dictionary, the most advanced Bible dictionary.
The third of four night watches assigned by the Romans. Cockcrow fell between midnight and 3:00 a.m., named because the rooster would begin to crow toward morning. Jesus referred to these watches in a parable (Mark 13:35). Other references to the cockcrow refer to an actual rooster crowing, including the account of Peter’s denial of Christ (Matt 26:34, 74; Mark 14:30; Luke 22:34; John 13:38).
Dictionaries
The Lexham Bible Dictionary
Cockcrow
Cockcrow (ἀλεκτοροφωνία, alektorophōnia). The third of four night watches assigned by the Romans. Cockcrow fell between midnight and 3:00 a.m., named because the rooster would begin to crow toward morning. Jesus referred to these watches in a parable (Mark 13:35). Other references to the cockcrow refer
The International Standard Bible Encyclopedia, Revised
Cockcrow
Cockcrow [Gk. alektorophōnía] (Mk. 13:35); AV COCKCROWING. An hour of the night between midnight and morning, referred to by all the Evangelists in their account of Peter’s denial (Mt. 26:34, 74 par). See Cock.
The Wycliffe Bible Encyclopedia
Cockcrowing
COCKCROWING. All four Gospels give Jesus’ prophecy that Peter would deny Him three times: Mark, “before the cock crows twice” (14:30); the others merely, before the cock crows (Mt 26:34; Lk 22:34; Jn 13:38). Mark therefore refers to a “second” cockcrowing (14:68, 72), the others do not (Mt 26:74–75;
Eerdmans Bible Dictionary
Cockcrow
Cockcrow (Gk. alektorophōnía).† The third of the four watches of the night assigned by the Romans (evening [6 to 9 p.m.], midnight [9 p.m. to 12 Ram.], cockcrow [12 to 3 Ram.], and morning [3 to 6 Ram.]; Mark 13:35; cf. Matt. 14:25 par. Mark 6:48 for the “fourth watch”); the Jews divided the
The New Unger’s Bible Dictionary
Cockcrowing
COCKCROWING. The habit of the cock in the East of crowing during the night at regular times gave rise to the expression “cockcrowing” to indicate a definite portion of time (Mark 13:35). The Romans called the last watch of the night, the break of day at about three o’clock, gallicinium; and the Hebrews
Easton’s Bible Dictionary
Cock-crowing
Cock-crowingIn our Lord’s time the Jews had adopted the Greek and Roman division of the night into four watches, each consisting of three hours, the first beginning at six o’clock in the evening (Luke 12:38; Matt. 14:25; Mark 6:48). But the ancient division, known as the first and second cock-crowing,
Nelson’s New Illustrated Bible Dictionary
Cockcrowing
COCKCROWING — a period of time between midnight and three o’clock in the morning; the third watch of the night. This reflects the Roman custom of dividing the night into four watches: late, midnight, cockcrowing, and early. (The Israelite practice divided the night into three watches.) In His parable
International Standard Bible Encyclopedia
COCK-CROWING
COCK-CROWING<kok’-kro-ing> ([ἀλεκτοροφωνία, alektorophonia]): An indefinite hour of the night between midnight and morning (Mark 13:35), referred to by all the evangelists in their account of Peter’s denial (Matthew 26:34, 74; Mark 14:30; Luke 22:34; John 13:38). It is derived from the
Dictionary of Phrase and Fable
Cockcrow
Cock-crow. The Hebrews divided the night into four watches: 1, The “beginning of the watches” or “even” (Lam. 2:19); 2, “The middle watch” or “midnight” (Judg. 7:19); 3, “The cock-crowing;” 4, “The morning watch” or “dawning” (Exod. 14:24).“Ye know not when the master of the house cometh, at even, or
The Westminster Bible Dictionary
Cock
Cock, Cock-crowʹing. In the New Testament, the “cock” is mentioned in reference to Peter’s denial of our Lord, and is alluded to in the word “cock-crowing” (Matt. 26:34; Mark 14:30). As in the Old Testament no allusion is made to the “cock,” it has been conjectured that the bird was introduced into Judæa
A Dictionary of Christ and the Gospels: Aaron–Zion
Cock-Crowing
COCK-CROWING (ἀλεκτοροφωνία).—The word occurs only in Mk 13:35, where it is evidently used to designate the third of four parts into which the night was divided—‘at even, or at midnight, or at the cock-crowing, or in the morning.’ In OT times there were only three watches in the night—the first, the
Holman Illustrated Bible Dictionary
Cockcrowing
COCKCROWING The third watch of the night in the Roman system (Mark 13:35), thus midnight until 3 a.m. Jewish system had only three watches; Roman had four.
Key passages
Mt 26:34

Jesus said to him, “Truly I say to you that during this night, before the rooster crows, you will deny me three times!”

Mk 13:35

Therefore be on the alert, for you do not know when the master of the house is coming—whether in the evening, or at midnight, or when the rooster crows, or early in the morning—