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Cicero
Excerpt from the Lexham Bible Dictionary, the most advanced Bible dictionary.
A famous Roman statesman and orator of the first century notable for both his political activity and influential writings and speeches (106–43 bc). As a political figure, Cicero was a key figure during the time of Julius Caesar, Pompey, Marc Antony, and Octavian. He defended senatorial authority and was exiled from Rome for his part in exposing a conspiracy by Catiline. Upon his return from exile, he opposed Caesar (d. 44 bc) and, later, Marc Antony. Eventually, Cicero was captured and killed by Antony’s men as an act of vengeance (see Plutarch, Cic., 48–49; Seneca, Contr., 7.2). As an orator, Cicero delivered over a hundred speeches which contributed to his reputation as one of the greatest orators of antiquity. As a writer, he produced hundreds of letters and other writings on philosophy, religion, and rhetoric. The size of Cicero’s literary output makes his writings immensely valuable for the study of early Christianity. In particular, his works on ancient rhetoric and philosophy were influential to the philosophical and religious environment in which early Christianity existed.
Dictionaries
The Lexham Bible Dictionary
Cicero
Cicero A famous Roman statesman and orator of the first century notable for both his political activity and influential writings and speeches (106–43 bc). As a political figure, Cicero was a key figure during the time of Julius Caesar, Pompey, Marc Antony, and Octavian. He defended senatorial authority
Dictionary of New Testament Background
Cicero
CICEROMarcus Tullius Cicero (106–43 b.c.) was the dominant statesman of the Roman republic in the turbulent years of the first century, which witnessed the demise of the traditional constitution and the transition to imperial dictatorship.1. Political Career2. Works and Influence3. On the Jews
Compton’s Encyclopedia
Cicero
Cicero(106–43 bc). A tall, slight man took his place in the Roman Senate on Nov. 8, 63 bc. The man was Marcus Tullius Cicero, the forceful speaker whose eloquence and statesmanship had raised him to the highest office in the Roman republic—the consulship. Only the day before, he had narrowly escaped
Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology, Volumes I–III
CI′CERO
CI′CERO, the name of a family of the Tullii. The Tullii Cicerones had from time immemorial been settled at Arpinum, which received the full franchise in b. c. 188; but they never aspired to any political distinction until the stock was raised by the great orator from that obscurity into which it quickly
A Dictionary of Early Christian Beliefs: A Reference Guide to More than 700 Topics Discussed by the Early Church Fathers
Cicero
CICEROMarcus Tullius Cicero (106–43 B.C.) was a prominent Roman statesman, orator, and Stoic philosopher.Cicero’s eminence was foreseen by his nurse, while he was still a little boy. Tertullian (c. 210, W), 3.225.Cicero, following and imitating [Plato] in many instances, frequently acknowledges God
The New Interpreter’s Dictionary of the Bible, Volumes 1–5
CICERO
CICERO. Marcus Tullius Cicero (106–43 bce) was a prominent public figure in Rome, notable as one of the leading courtroom orators before being elected to several public offices, including CONSUL (63 bce). Not long after the rise of the first triumvirate in 60 bce, Cicero was exiled from Rome, and although