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Chaos
Excerpt from the Lexham Bible Dictionary, the most advanced Bible dictionary.
Describes the state of disorder that would exist in the absence of a divinely imposed order on the cosmos. In biblical and ancient Near Eastern literature, the supreme gods brought order to the universe and subdued the forces of chaos. The chaotic unpredictability and latent threat of the sea (ים‎, ym) resulted in its coming to represent these forces of chaos in ancient literature such as the Baal Cycle, where one of Baal’s main conflicts is a battle against the god of the sea, Yamm (the same Semitic word as the Hebrew for sea, yam). Baal’s eventual victory symbolizes the triumph of order over chaos. In addition to the sea itself, chaos could be represented as a great sea serpent or dragon (תנין‎, tnyn), variously known as Leviathan, Rahab, or Tiamat. In the Mesopotamian creation epic Enuma Elish, the god Marduk defeats the great sea monster Tiamat. The German word Chaoskampf, meaning “battle against chaos,” is often used as a technical term in biblical scholarship to refer to this story pattern of a deity battling the forces of chaos, either in the form of the sea or a sea monster.
Dictionaries
The Lexham Bible Dictionary
Chaos
Chaos Describes the state of disorder that would exist in the absence of a divinely imposed order on the cosmos. In biblical and ancient Near Eastern literature, the supreme gods brought order to the universe and subdued the forces of chaos. The chaotic unpredictability and latent threat of the sea (ים‎,
The International Standard Bible Encyclopedia, Revised
Chaos
Chaos [Heb. lō’ seḏārîm (Job 10:22), tōhû (Isa. 24:10; 34:11; 45:18f)]; AV also CONFUSION, VAIN, “without any order”; NEB also EMPTY VOID, “a place of disorder” (mg Job 10:22). The state of formlessness, of utter disorder and confusion.The Heb. tōhû is frequently used in the OT to describe
The Wycliffe Bible Encyclopedia
Chaos
CHAOS. The Gr. term from which this word is transliterated (chaos) does not occur in the Bible. In ancient mythologies it carried the idea of confusion and is commonly used to describe the condition of the earth at the time the Spirit of God moved upon the face of the waters (Gen 1:2–4). In this passage
Eerdmans Dictionary of the Bible
Chaos
ChaosA state of confusion, emptiness, or disorder. Chaos existed before God brought order to the universe during creation. In a parallel creation epic, the Babylonian Enuma Elish, the sea-goddess Tiamat represents the unbounded chaos and power of the ocean. Marduk defeats her in a heroic struggle and
Eerdmans Bible Dictionary
Chaos
Chaos. *A state of emptiness and disorder. At Isa. 24:10 the “city of chaos” (Heb. tōhû; KJV “city of confusion”; JB “city of emptiness,” mg. “the symbolic city of evil”) is one rendered desolate by the ravages of war, no longer habitable for humans, even though a few houses may remain standing.
Dictionary of Deities and Demons in the Bible
Chaos
CHAOS ΧάοςI. The Greek word χάος (related to χάσκω or χαίνω, ‘gape, yawn’) literally means ‘chasm’ or ‘yawning space’. There were various conceptions of it in Greco-Roman antiquity, because in various mythical cosmogonies Chaos played very different roles. The word occurs only twice in the Greek
The New Unger’s Bible Dictionary
Chaos
CHAOS. A term not used in Scripture (though see Isa. 34:11, NIV), but in frequent use to designate the unformed mass of primeval matter mentioned in Gen. 1:2. It comes from the Gk. chaos (“immeasurable space”) and is used by Hesiod for the unfathomable gulf that was supposed to be the first of existing
Dictionary of Biblical Imagery
Chaos
ChaosWhen Paul rebukes the Corinthians for their unseemly style of worship, he founds his argument on God’s character: “God is not a God of disorder but of peace” (1 Cor 14:33 NIV). Paul may have easily drawn such an understanding of God from the Scriptures. Wherever the images of chaos (confusion,
Dictionary of Phrase and Fable
Chaos
Cha′os (ka′os). Confusion; that confused mass of elemental substances supposed to have existed before God reduced creation into order. The poet Hesiod is the first extant writer that speaks of it.“Light, uncollected, through the chaos urgedIts infant way; nor order yet had drawnHis lovely train from
Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology, Volumes I–III
CHAOS
CHAOS (Χάος), the vacant and infinite space which existed according to the ancient cosmogonies previous to the creation of the world (Hes. Theog. 116), and out of which the gods, men, and all things arose. A different definition of Chaos is given by Ovid (Met. i. 1, &c.), who describes it as the confused
Holman Illustrated Bible Dictionary
Chaos
CHAOS Transliteration of the Greek word. In the OT, several Hebrew words convey the idea meaning emptiness, waste, desolation, and void. Hebrew verbs denote sinking into obscurity, becoming nothingness, or falling prey to weakness. In Isa. 24:10 God announced judgment on the whole earth. This included
The Zondervan Encyclopedia of the Bible, Volume 1, A–C
Chaos
chaos. Chaos in classical Greek thought was the (sometimes personified) misty darkness before all existing things came into being (cf. Hesiod, Theog. 116). In later Roman times it became the primeval matter out of which the universe was constructed. In Gen. 1:2 the primal state of the universe is described