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Calendar
Excerpt from the Lexham Bible Dictionary, the most advanced Bible dictionary.
The biblical text gives only sporadic evidence for the functional Israelite calendar during Old and New Testament periods. Despite the lack of comprehensive evidence, it appears that Israel utilized a lunisolar calendar which was, in part, dependent on the agricultural cycle.
Dictionaries
The Lexham Bible Dictionary
Calendar
Calendar The biblical text gives only sporadic evidence for the functional Israelite calendar during Old and New Testament periods. Despite the lack of comprehensive evidence, it appears that Israel utilized a lunisolar calendar which was, in part, dependent on the agricultural cycle.
The Anchor Yale Bible Dictionary
Calendars
CALENDARS. A calendar is a system for arranging and calculating the standard divisions of time (days, months, years, etc.). The term is also used to refer to schedules of events such as festivals. This entry consists of two articles, one surveying the use of calendars in the ANE and the other surveying
The International Standard Bible Encyclopedia, Revised
Calendar
Calendar The various methods of calendrical reckoning found in the OT and NT, and the numerous references to them, reflect the importance of the calendar at all times in Israelite and early Christian history. Without presupposing a sophisticated theory of “historical consciousness” in early Israel,
The HarperCollins Bible Dictionary (Revised and Updated)
Calendar
calendar. The Bible does not contain a complete calendar for ancient Israel, but the one presented in the chart accompanying this entry has been reconstructed from various references, correlated with knowledge of the Babylonian calendar, which Israel seems to have adopted or adapted. It is not absolutely
The Wycliffe Bible Encyclopedia
Calendar
The Gezer Calendar. ORINSTCALENDAR. Palestine was a land without political unity until the time of the Heb. united monarchy. Among peoples who lived under city-state rule centered around an important temple, the tendency was to develop separate menologies or ecclesiastical calendars. In the ancient
The Archaeological Encyclopedia of the Holy Land
Calendar
CALENDAR The Gregorian calendar used in our own era takes its origin from the Roman calendar established by Julius Caesar and is based on the solar year. In the ancient world the Egyptians were alone in reckoning by solar time; the other nations of the ancient Near East all based their calendars on the
The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church
calendar
calendar. The calendar in use at the time when Christianity began was the Julian, devised by Julius Caesar in 46 bc, in which the length of the years was almost but not quite accurately calculated. By AD 325 the error was enough to cause the vernal equinox to fall on 21 instead of 25 Mar., so that
The New Unger’s Bible Dictionary
Calendar
CALENDAR (Lat. calendarium, from calere, “to call,” because the priests called the people to notice that it was new moon). An ecclesiastical almanac indicating the special days and seasons to be observed.
Nelson’s New Illustrated Bible Dictionary
Calendar
CALENDAR — a system of reckoning time, usually based on a recurrent natural cycle (such as the sun through the seasons or the moon through its phases); a table, or tabular register, of days according to a system usually covering one year and referring the days of each month to the days of the week.From
Key passages
Ex 12:2

“This month will be the beginning of months; it will be for you the first of the months of the year.

Ex 23:14–16

“ ‘Three times in the year you will hold a festival for me. You will keep the Feast of Unleavened Bread; for seven days you will eat unleavened bread, as I commanded you at the appointed time, the month of Abib, because in it you came out from Egypt, and no one will appear before me empty-handed. …

Ex 34:22

And you yourself will observe the Feast of Weeks—the firstfruits of the wheat harvest—and the Feast of Harvest Gathering at the turn of the year.