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Bethlehem (of Judah)
Excerpt from the Lexham Bible Dictionary, the most advanced Bible dictionary.
A town in the hill country of Judah significant as the burial site of the matriarch Rachel (Gen 35:19), as the hometown of King David (1 Sam 20:6; Luke 2:4), and as the birthplace of Jesus (Matt 2:1).
Lexham Bible Dictionary
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The Lexham Bible Dictionary
The Anchor Yale Bible Dictionary
LEHEM (PLACE) [Heb leḥem (לֶחֶם)]. A possible place name somewhere in the territory of the tribe of Judah, and is so rendered by the RSV (1 Chr 4:22). However, no such place has been identified. The name appears in a recorded event concerning two Judahites, Joash and Saraph, who had returned to Judah
Baker Encyclopedia of the Bible
Ephrath, Ephrathah, Ephratah (Place)
Ephrath, Ephrathah, Ephratah (Place). 1. Town in the Judean hill country later named Bethlehem. It was on the road to Ephrath (also spelled Ephrathah, kjv Ephratah) that Rachel died while giving birth to Benjamin (Gn 35:16, 19). This town was the home of Naomi’s family, who identified themselves as Ephrathites
Lehem. Obscure Hebrew term in 1 Chronicles 4:22. Following the Hebrew, some understand Jashubi-lehem as a descendant of Judah (kjv) or a place where Joash and Saraph ruled (niv). Others, changing the Hebrew slightly, translate “returned to Lehem” (rsv), meaning either Bethlehem or some unknown place.
The International Standard Bible Encyclopedia, Revised
Bethlehem bethʹlə-hem [Heb. bêṯ leḥem—‘house of bread’ or possibly ‘house of Lakhmu,’ an Assyrian deity; Gk. A, NT, Bēthleem, B Baithleem; Josephus Bēthleemōn, Bēthleemēs, etc.].1. Bethlehem-judah, or Ephrath or Ephrathah, a town located on the edge of the desert of Judah, 5 mi (8 km) S of
Ephrathah ef’ra-tha, ef-răʹtha [Heb. ʾep̱rṯâ; Gk. Ephratha]; AV EPHRATAH. The place of Benjamin’s birth and Rachel’s death (Gen. 35:16–20), the name either of Bethlehem itself or of a district in which Bethlehem was located. The designer of the mosaic Madeba Map has separated Ephrathah from Bethlehem;
Jashubi-Lehem jə-shoo̅ʹbī-lēʹhem [Heb. yāšuḇî-leḥem]. A name in 1 Ch. 4:22 read as such by AV, but changed in the RSV to “and returned to Lehem,” based upon a slight difference in the pointing of the first word. The NEB, following some commentators, inserted bêṯ between the two words and rendered
Lehem lēʹhəm [Heb. lāḥem (pausal form)] (1 Ch. 4:22). The RSV translates the AV Jashubi-lehem as “returned to Lehem.” No such place is known. The NEB and many commentators emend to read “returned to Bethlehem.” A less drastic emendation, following the Gk. apéstrepsen autoús, would be Heb. wayyāšuḇû
Tyndale Bible Dictionary
BETHLEHEM1. “City of David” and the birthplace of Jesus Christ, five miles (8 kilometers) south of Jerusalem. This city is sometimes called Bethlehem-judah (kjv) or Ephrath (Gn 35:19; Mi 5:2) to distinguish it from the Bethlehem of Zebulun. As an early Canaanite settlement, it was associated with the
EPHRATH (Place)1. Town in the Judean hill country later named Bethlehem. It was on the road to Ephrath that Rachel died while giving birth to Benjamin (Gn 35:16–19). This town was the home of Naomi’s family, who identified themselves as Ephrathites (Ru 1:2). Ephrath was the dwelling place of Ruth and
The HarperCollins Bible Dictionary (Revised and Updated)
Bethlehem (beth´li-hem; Heb. bet lekhem, “house of bread”).1 A small town of over twenty thousand inhabitants, about three miles southwest of Jerusalem. At an elevation of 2,460 feet above sea level, Bethlehem sits along the north-south ridge road of the central highlands. It looks westward to the fertile
Ephrath (ef´rath).1 The place where Rachel was buried, after she died while giving birth to Benjamin (Gen. 35:16, 19). It is identified in Genesis as Bethlehem (35:19; 48:7), but there could be a confusion of Ephrath and Ephrathah, which is associated with Bethlehem in Ruth 4:11 and Mic. 5:1. Elsewhere,
Ephrathah (ef´ruh-thuh; Heb., “fertility”).1 The wife of Caleb, a descendant of Judah; the mother of Hur, the ancestor of Bethlehem, Kiriath-jearim, and Beth-gader (1 Chron. 2:50; 4:4). She is also called Ephrath (1 Chron. 2:19).2 Another name for Bethlehem or the area immediately surrounding it (Ruth
The Wycliffe Bible Encyclopedia
Church of the Nativity, Bethlehem. HFVBETHLEHEM (“house of bread”). A name used 40 times in the OT and eight times in the NT.1. A place in Zebulun’s territory seven miles NW of Nazareth (Josh 19:15). It is suggested by some that Ibzan, one of the judges, came from this Bethlehem in the N (Jdg 12:8).
The New Bible Dictionary, Third Edition
BETHLEHEM (Heb. bêṯ leḥem, ‘house of bread’, the latter word probably in the wider sense, ‘food’). It has been suggested that the final word leḥem is Lakhmu, an Assyrian deity; but there is no evidence that this god was ever revered in Palestine. There are two towns of the name in the OT, both today
EPHRATH, EPHRATHAH. 1. The ancient name of *Bethlehem Judah, which occurs in all cases but one (Gn. 48:7 ’ep̱rāṯ) in the form ’ep̱rāṯâ. Rachel was buried on the route there from Bethel (Gn. 35:16, 19; 48:7; cf. 1 Sa. 10:2); it was the home of Naomi’s family (Ru. 4:11), who are described as Ephrathites
Eerdmans Dictionary of the Bible
Bethlehem (Heb. bêṯ leḥem, bêṯ halaḥmɩ̂; Gk. Bēthleém)A city name originally derived from Heb. “bayiṯ, “house,” denoting a cultic site, and the name of a pair of ancient Mesopotamian agricultural deities, Lahmu and Lahamu, listed early in the cosmogony of the Enuma Elish.1. A village in the
Ephrathah (Heb. ʾep̱rāṯâ) (PLACE)A place name used in reference to Bethlehem and the surrounding region (Ruth 4:11; Mic. 5:2). Jesse, the father of David, is called an Ephrathite of Bethlehem (1 Sam. 17:12), as are Naomi, her husband, and their sons (Ruth 1:2). The LXX includes Ephrathah in the list
Jashubi-Lehem (Heb. yāšuḇɩ̂ leḥem)Traditionally interpreted as a place name mentioned in relation to the sons of Shelah (1 Chr. 4:22). The text is probably to be emended to read “but returned to Lehem” (cf. Vulg., LXX, Tg.).Christian M. M. Brady
Lehem (Heb. leḥem)An obscure Hebrew form found in 1 Chr. 4:22, possibly an unknown place (so NRSV) ruled by Joash and Saraph. Some versions regard Lehem as a shortened form of Bethlehem (e.g., NJB, REB) or read MT “Jashubi-lahem” as a personal name (cf. NRSV mg). Another possibility is to translate
Eerdmans Bible Dictionary
Jashubi-Lehem [jə shōōˊbī lēˊhĕm] (Heb. yāšuḇîleḥem).† According to the KJV, a descendant of Shelah the Judahite (1 Chr. 4:22). The NIV and NJV read Jashubi Lehem as a place name; the RSV does similarly, translating “and returned to Lehem” (cf. JB, “Bethlehem”). The NJV links
The Archaeological Encyclopedia of the Holy Land
BETHLEHEM a) A city in the territory of Judah, 6 miles south of Jerusalem, possibly mentioned in the El Amarna letters. In the Bible it appears first in connection with Rachel’s death and her burial ‘in the way to Ephrath, which is Bethlehem’ (Gen. 35:19). It was also the scene of the story of Ruth (Ruth
Catholic Bible Dictionary
BETHLEHEM (Hebrew, “house of bread”) The name of two towns in Palestine.1. Bethlehem of Judah was a village about five miles south of Jerusalem, on the southbound road to Hebron (Judg 19:9). It is also identified with Ephrath, the birthplace of Benjamin and the burial place of Rachel (Gen 35:16–20).
EPHRATH, EPHRATHAH1. The wife of Hezron and later his son Caleb (1 Chr 2:19; 4:4) and hence the mother of Hur and Ashbur (1 Chr 2:24). On the basis of the genealogical lists in 1 Chronicles, the families of David and Elimelech were called Ephrathites (cf. Ruth 1:2; 1 Sam 17:12), and the clan was considered