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Artaxerxes’ Letters for Nehemiah
Excerpt from the Lexham Bible Dictionary, the most advanced Bible dictionary.
Artaxerxes is the Latinized Greek form of the Achaemenid throne-name Artaxshasa, meaning “He who reigns through order/truth.” The name appears in Ezra and Nehemiah as the King of Persia. There were three Achaemenid kings who took the throne-name Artaxerxes (Arses I ‘Longimanus’: 465–424 bc; Arsakes II ‘Memnon’: 404–359; Ochus III: 359–338). Arses IV (337–336) also might have taken the name Artaxerxes, and Bessus V—the murderer of Darius III—also briefly used it (330 bc).
Dictionaries
The Lexham Bible Dictionary
Artaxerxes
Artaxerxes (אַרְתַּחְשַׁשְׂתָּא‎, artachshasta'). Artaxerxes is the Latinized Greek form of the Achaemenid throne-name Artaxshasa, meaning “He who reigns through order/truth.” The name appears in Ezra and Nehemiah as the King of Persia. There were three Achaemenid kings who took the throne-name Artaxerxes
The Anchor Yale Bible Dictionary
Artaxerxes (Person)
ARTAXERXES (PERSON) [Aram ʾartaḥšaśtāʾ (אַרְתַּחְשַׁשְׂתָּא); Gk Artaxérxēs (Ἀρταξέρξης)]. Persian king in whose reign the missions of Ezra (Ezra 7:1) and Nehemiah (Neh 2:1) took place. There were three Persian kings having this name, yet the biblical text neither specifies nor distinguishes
Baker Encyclopedia of the Bible
Artaxerxes
Artaxerxes. Name of three kings of the Persian empire.1. Artaxerxes I (464–424 bc), known as Macrocheir or Longimanus, son and successor of Xerxes I (485–465 bc). Xerxes I was the Ahasuerus of the Book of Esther and Ezra 4:6. A few years after the succession of Artaxerxes I the Greeks urged Egypt to
The International Standard Bible Encyclopedia, Revised
Artaxerxes
Artaxerxes ăr-tə-zûrkʹsēz [Heb. and Aram ’artaḥ-šastā’, with vowel variants; Gk. Artaxerxēs].
Tyndale Bible Dictionary
Artaxerxes
ARTAXERXES Name of three kings of the Persian Empire.1. Artaxerxes I (465–424 bc), known as Macrocheir or Longimanus, son and successor of Xerxes I (486–465 bc). Xerxes I was the Ahasuerus of the book of Esther and Ezra 4:6. A few years after the succession of Artaxerxes I, the Greeks urged Egypt to
The Wycliffe Bible Encyclopedia
Artaxerxes
ARTAXERXES. The fifth monarch after Cyrus the Great to rule over the Persian Empire. To distinguish him from two later kings of the same name, he was known as Artaxerxes I (Longimanus). He reigned from 464 to 423 b.c., twice as long as his father Xerxes (Est 1:1). See Ahasuerus.Not a dynamic ruler,
The New Bible Dictionary, Third Edition
Artaxerxes
ARTAXERXES (Heb. ’artaḥšastâ’, with variant vocalizations, from Old Persian arta-xša ra, ‘kingdom of righteousness’). 1. Artaxerxes I (Longimanus), 464–424 bc. In his reign Ezra and Nehemiah came to Jerusalem, according to Ezr. 7:1; Ne. 2:1; etc. It has been argued that in the former case the Chronicler
Eerdmans Dictionary of the Bible
Artaxerxes
Artaxerxes (Heb. ʾartaḥšastāʾ; Gk. Artaxerxēs)A common name among Persian kings of the Achaemenid dynasty. Artaxerxes is mentioned as the Persian king who commissioned the missions of Ezra and Nehemiah (Ezra 7:1–28; Neh. 2:1–8). On the basis of extrabiblical references to his antagonists Sanballat
Smith’s Bible Dictionary
Artaxerxes
Artaxerx´es (the great warrior).1. The first Artaxerxes is mentioned in Ezra 4:7, and appears identical with Smerdis, the Magian impostor and pretended brother of Cambyses, who usurped the throne b.c. 522, and reigned eight months.2. In Neh. 2:1 we have another Artaxerxes. We may safely identify him
The New Unger’s Bible Dictionary
Artaxerxes
ARTAXERXES (ar-ta-zerkʹsez).Artaxerxes I Longimanus, who reigned over Persia forty years, 464–424 b.c. In the seventh year of his reign he commissioned Ezra to return to Jerusalem, granting large privileges to him and those accompanying him (Ezra 7:11–26), 457 b.c. About thirteen years later (445 b.c.)
Easton’s Bible Dictionary
Artaxerxes
Artaxerxesthe Greek form of the name of several Persian kings. (1.) The king who obstructed the rebuilding of the temple (Ezra 4:7). He was probably the Smerdis of profane history.(2.) The king mentioned in Ezra 7:1, in the seventh year (458) of whose reign Ezra led a second colony of Jews back to
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