Excerpt from the Lexham Bible Dictionary, the most advanced Bible dictionary.
The Nabataean king ca. 9 bc–ad 40, who established religious centers in Petra.The governor of Damascus under Aretas IV attempted to have Paul arrested (2 Cor 11:32). Aretas’ daughter married the ruler of Galilee and Perea, Herod Antipas, best known today from New Testament accounts of his role in the executions of John the Baptist and Jesus of Nazareth. When Antipas took another wife, Aretas IV’s daughter returned to her father, who then went to war against Antipas and defeated him. Herod Antipas appealed to Emperor Tiberius, who assigned the governor of Syria, Vitellas, to attack Aretas. This episode was a significant precursor to the beheading of John the Baptist and the death of Jesus.
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The Lexham Bible Dictionary
The Anchor Yale Bible Dictionary
ARETAS. Dynastic name of at least four kings of the royal house of Nabatea located at Petra. The earliest Nabatean Aramaic inscription from Elusa on the Petra-Gaza road in the Negev mentions an “Aretas, King of the Nabateans.” Proposals for a date of the inscription vary from the beginning to the end
The International Standard Bible Encyclopedia, Revised
3. Aretas IV, the successor of Obodas, apparently surnamed Aeneas; the Arabian king who figures in the NT (2 Cor. 11:32; cf. Acts 9:24). He was the father-in-law of Herod Antipas, who divorced his wife to marry Herodias, the wife of his brother Philip (Mt. 14:3; Mk. 6:17; Lk. 3:19).Josephus (Ant.xviii.
The HarperCollins Bible Dictionary (Revised and Updated)
Aretas (air´uh-tuhs) IV, Nabatean king who greatly expanded his kingdom (9 bce–40 ce). His daughter was married to Herod Antipas and was divorced by him when Antipas chose to marry Herodias instead. Aretas took the conflict to the battlefield and won a victory that humiliated Antipas and probably cost
Eerdmans Dictionary of the Bible
Aretas (Gk. Harétas)1. Aretas I, the first Nabatean ruler named in ancient literature. According to 2 Macc. 5:8 the Jewish high priest Jason somehow ran afoul of Aretas when he fled from Jerusalem to Nabatea in 168 b.c.e. Here, Aretas is called týrannos, which may indicate that the Nabatean rulers
Ecclesiastical Dictionary: Containing, in Concise Form, Information upon Ecclesiastical, Biblical, Archæological, and Historical Subjects
Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology, Volumes I–III
All the People in the Bible: An A–Z Guide to the Saints, Scoundrels, and Other Characters in Scripture
The New Interpreter’s Dictionary of the Bible, Volumes 1–5
ARETAS air´uh-tuhs [Ἀρέτας Aretas]. Dynastic name of a number of Nabatean (Arabian) kings.1. Aretas I (ca. 170–160 bce) was the first of the Nabatean dynasts mentioned in the historical record, where an inscription styles him as king (Aram. mlk). According to 2 Macc 5:8, the high priest Jason was