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Aretas III (Arabian prince)
Excerpt from the Lexham Bible Dictionary, the most advanced Bible dictionary.
A Nabataean ruler from 87 bc to 62 bc. During this time, tension between the Nabataeans and the Hasmonaean dynasty escalated. Aretas III conquered Damascus in 84 bc and later invaded the Hasmonaean kingdom, defeating King Alexander Jannaeus at Hadid (near today’s Ben-Gurion Airport). In retaliation, Alexander attacked and captured Nabataean strongholds in Bashan, Gilead, and Moab. Alexander’s wife, Alexandra Salome, succeeded him and remains the only regnant queen in Israel’s history. Upon Alexandra Salome’s death, her sons, Aristobulus and Hyrcanus, fought over the throne. Aristobulus won. Hyrcanus sought refuge by forging an alliance with Aretas III. Under Aretas III, Nabataean soldiers attacked Jerusalem in 65 bc, but the attack was thwarted one year later when the Romans, under the leadership of Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus (or Pompey), appeared on the scene. Pompey commissioned his half-brother, Scaurus, to go to Jerusalem and force the Nabataeans to retreat.
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The Lexham Bible Dictionary
Aretas III
Aretas III A Nabataean ruler from 87 bc to 62 bc. During this time, tension between the Nabataeans and the Hasmonaean dynasty escalated. Aretas III conquered Damascus in 84 bc and later invaded the Hasmonaean kingdom, defeating King Alexander Jannaeus at Hadid (near today’s Ben-Gurion Airport). In retaliation,
The Anchor Yale Bible Dictionary
Aretas
ARETAS. Dynastic name of at least four kings of the royal house of Nabatea located at Petra. The earliest Nabatean Aramaic inscription from Elusa on the Petra-Gaza road in the Negev mentions an “Aretas, King of the Nabateans.” Proposals for a date of the inscription vary from the beginning to the end
The International Standard Bible Encyclopedia, Revised
Aretas (Arabian prince)
2. An Arabian prince surnamed Obodas, who defeated Antiochus Dionysius and reigned over Coele-Syria and Damascus (Josephus Ant. xiii.15.2; 16.2; xvi.9.4). He participated with Hyrcanus in the war for the Jewish throne against his brother Aristobulus; but the allies were completely defeated at Papyron
Eerdmans Dictionary of the Bible
Aretas
Aretas (Gk. Harétas)1. Aretas I, the first Nabatean ruler named in ancient literature. According to 2 Macc. 5:8 the Jewish high priest Jason somehow ran afoul of Aretas when he fled from Jerusalem to Nabatea in 168 b.c.e. Here, Aretas is called týrannos, which may indicate that the Nabatean rulers
The New Interpreter’s Dictionary of the Bible, Volumes 1–5
ARETAS
ARETAS air´uh-tuhs [Ἀρέτας Aretas]. Dynastic name of a number of Nabatean (Arabian) kings.1. Aretas I (ca. 170–160 bce) was the first of the Nabatean dynasts mentioned in the historical record, where an inscription styles him as king (Aram. mlk). According to 2 Macc 5:8, the high priest Jason was