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Amraphel
Excerpt from the Lexham Bible Dictionary, the most advanced Bible dictionary.
The king of Shinar in the alliance with Chedorlaomer against Sodom and the cities of the plain (Gen 14:1, 4, 9). Shinar was a region of plains in southern Mesopotamia, also known as Chaldea. In the 19th century, scholars identified Amraphel as Hammurabi of Babylon, but few scholars hold to this view today.Amraphel was part of an alliance that included three other kings:1. Arioch of Ellasar2. Tidal king of Goiim3. Chedorlaomer of ElamThe confederacy made its incursion into Syria-Palestine a year after five kings of the plain had rebelled against Chedorlaomer, their overlord for 12 years. Chedorlaomer and his forces defeated the Rephaim in Ashtaroth-karnaim, the Zuzim in Ham, the Emim in Shaveh-kiriathaim, and the Horites in the hill country of Seir. Then they returned to Kadesh and defeated the Amalekites and the Amorites at Hazazon-tamar (Gen 14:5–7). When the rebelling alliance of kings (Bera of Sodom, Birsha of Gomorrah, Shinab of Admah, Shemeber of Zeboiim, and the king of Bela/Zoar) went out to fight the alliance of Chedorlaomer in the Valley of Siddim, they were defeated. Abraham’s nephew, Lot, was taken captive by the victorious Chedorlaomer.
Dictionaries
The Lexham Bible Dictionary
Amraphel
Amraphel (אַמְרָפֶל‎, amraphel). The king of Shinar in the alliance with Chedorlaomer against Sodom and the cities of the plain (Gen 14:1, 4, 9). Shinar was a region of plains in southern Mesopotamia, also known as Chaldea. In the 19th century, scholars identified Amraphel as Hammurabi of Babylon, but
The Anchor Yale Bible Dictionary
Amraphel (Person)
AMRAPHEL (PERSON) [Heb ʾamrāpel (אַמְרָפֶל)]. King of Shinar (Gen 14:1, 9), one of the allies of Chedorlaomer. Shinar is an alternate name of Babylonia in the OT and in some Egyptian and cuneiform records of the 2d millennium (1QapGen 21:23 and the Targums render it by bbl “Babel”). Amraphel was identified
Baker Encyclopedia of the Bible
Amraphel
Amraphel. King of Shinar (Babylonia), who helped King Chedorlaomer of Elam quell a revolt of five vassal cities in Palestine (Gn 14:1–11). Attempts to identify Amraphel with Hammurabi of Babylon on the basis of name similarity have failed.
The International Standard Bible Encyclopedia, Revised
Amraphel
Amraphel amʹrə-fel [Heb. ˊamrāp̱el]. The king of Shinar who fought against Sodom and the Cities of the Plain in alliance with Arioch king of Ellasar, Chedorlaomer king of Elam, and Tidal king of nations. His name is found only in Gen. 14:1, 9.Certain difficulties are associated with the identification
Tyndale Bible Dictionary
Amraphel
AMRAPHEL King of Shinar (Babylonia), who helped King Chedorlaomer of Elam quell a revolt of five vassal cities in Palestine (Gn 14:1–11).
The Wycliffe Bible Encyclopedia
Amraphel
AMRAPHEL. The king of Shinar, who joined with other kings in a battle in the valley of Siddim during the days of Abram (Gen 14). Because of some similarity of the names in Heb., attempts formerly were made to identify him with Hammurabi, the famous king of Babylon. The first and last Heb. letters of
The New Bible Dictionary, Third Edition
Amraphel
AMRAPHEL. A king of *Shinar who attacked Sodom and its neighbours with the aid of *Chedorlaomer and other kings, but was repulsed by Abram (Gn. 14:1ff.). His identity is uncertain. The equation with *Hammurapi is unlikely.D. W. Baker.
Eerdmans Dictionary of the Bible
Amraphel
Amraphel (Heb. ʾamrāp̱el)King of Shinar and one of the four kings from the East who joined together under Chedorlaomer, king of Elam, to attack the five kings in the Dead Sea Valley (Gen. 14:1, 9). This coalition plundered Sodom and Gomorrah before taking Abraham’s nephew Lot captive. Abraham gathered
Eerdmans Bible Dictionary
Amraphel
Amraphel [ămˊrə fĕl] (Heb.˓amrāp̱el).† One of the kings mentioned at Gen. 14:1, 9 who fought against the kings of the Cities of the Plain. He was “king of Shinar,” possibly the district of Singar in Upper Mesopotamia.After twelve years as vassals of the Elamite king Chedorlaomer, the kings of
Catholic Bible Dictionary
Amraphel
AMRAPHEL The king of Shinar and one of the four Mesopotamian kings (the kings of the East)—with Arioch king of Ellasar, Tidal king of Goiim, and Chedorlaomer king of Elam—who jointly invaded Canaan and defeated the five kings of the Plains (Gen 14:1–9). In this campaign they plundered Sodom and Gomorrah
Smith’s Bible Dictionary
Amraphel
Am´raphel (keeper of the gods), perhaps a Hamite king of Shinar or Babylonia, who joined the victorious incursion of the Elamite Chedorlaomer against the kings of Sodom and Gomorrah and the cities of the plain. Gen. 14. (b.c. 1898.)
The New Unger’s Bible Dictionary
Amraphel
AM´RAPHEL (amʹra-fel). A king of Shinar, the alluvial lowland of southern Babylonia, and an ally of Chedorlaomer in the invasion of the W in the time of Abraham, c. 2080 b.c., and formerly generally identified with Hammurabi the Great of the First Dynasty of Babylon (c. 1728–1689). This Amraphel-Hammurabi
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