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Adonijah (brother of Solomon)
Excerpt from the Lexham Bible Dictionary, the most advanced Bible dictionary.
The fourth son of David, through Haggith; born after Amnon, Chileab (Daniel), and Absalom (2 Sam 3:3–4). Executed by order of King Solomon, for persistent pretensions to the throne.As King David (d. ca. 970 bc) was aged and infirm—and the monarchy still a young institution in Israel—the beginning of 1 Kings reflects the uncertainty of the succession process. The eldest surviving heir at the time was Adonijah (Chileab presumably having died, as well as Amnon and Absalom). Anticipating a court plot favoring Solomon (1 Kgs 1:8), and determining that only decisive action could seize the day, Adonijah launched a preemptive, bloodless coup before David’s death, staging a celebration—with himself as king—near En-rogel. Attendants included Abiathar, a priest; Joab, the head of the army; and a multitude of chariots, horsemen, and others (1 Kgs 1:5). Glaringly absent (and not invited) were Solomon and his advocates—including the prophet Nathan, the priest Zadok, the general Benaiah, and David’s mighty men (1 Kgs 1:10).Fearful for their own welfare, Nathan and Bathsheba provoked David into proclaiming Solomon as king (1 Kgs 1:11–40), to be co-regent until David’s death. They predicated doing so on an alleged promise (not recorded elsewhere) made to Bathsheba that Solomon would succeed David. Solomon’s coronation was staged at Gihon and was so boisterous that Adonijah’s now-rebel camp fled at the commotion. Adonijah himself feared execution, but Solomon showed clemency instead (1 Kgs 1:50–53).However, soon after David’s death, Adonijah petitioned Bathsheba to intercede with Solomon in order that Adonijah might marry Abishag, a young woman who had attended to David. Adonijah’s justification to the queen mother: “You know that the kingdom was mine, and that all Israel expected me to reign” (1 Kgs 2:15 NRSV)—would have constituted a challenge to the throne and its property, as the king’s harem belonged to his successor. Construing this as a treasonous ruse by his older brother, Solomon ordered Adonijah executed (1 Kgs 2:13–25).
Dictionaries
The Lexham Bible Dictionary
Adonijah, Son of David
Adonijah, Son of David (אֲדֹנִיָּה‎, adoniyyah, “my Lord is Yahweh”). The fourth son of David, through Haggith; born after Amnon, Chileab (Daniel), and Absalom (2 Sam 3:3–4). Executed by order of King Solomon, for persistent pretensions to the throne.As King David (d. ca. 970 bc) was aged and infirm—
The Anchor Yale Bible Dictionary
Adonijah (Person)
ADONIJAH (PERSON) [Heb ʾădōnı̂yāh (û) (אֲדֹנִיָּהוּ)]. A name given three OT characters which means “Yah (weh) is (my) Lord.”1. The fourth son of David by his wife Haggith in Hebron, while David was king of Judah (2 Sam 3:4; 1 Chr 3:1–2); and heir apparent to the throne at the time of Solomon’s
Baker Encyclopedia of the Bible
Adonijah
Adonijah. 1. David’s fourth son, born to Haggith at Hebron (2 Sm 3:4). After the death of his three older brothers (Amnon, Chileab, and Absalom), Adonijah was next in line for the throne. King David, however, had promised his wife Bathsheba that their son Solomon would be the one to succeed him (1 Kgs
The International Standard Bible Encyclopedia, Revised
Adonijah (brother of Solomon)
1. The fourth son of David, born in Hebron, who attempted to become king (2 S. 3:4; 1 Ch. 3:2; 1 K. 1–2).Aside from Chileab, Adonijah was the oldest living son in David’s last days. During this period Adonijah built up an entourage (1 K. 1:5) and solicited the support of Abiathar the priest and Joab
Adonijah
Adonijah ad-ə-nīʹjə [Heb. aḏōnîyâ, aḏōnîyāhû—‘Yahweh is my Lord’].
Tyndale Bible Dictionary
Adonijah
ADONIJAH1. David’s fourth son, born to Haggith at Hebron (2 Sm 3:4). After the deaths of his three older brothers (Amnon, Chileab, and Absalom), Adonijah was next in line for the throne. According to 1 Kings, David had promised his wife Bathsheba that their son Solomon would be the one to succeed him
The HarperCollins Bible Dictionary (Revised and Updated)
Adonijah
Adonijah (ad´uh-ni´juh; Heb., “the Lord is my lord”), the son of David and Haggith and apparent heir to the throne in Jerusalem after the death of Absalom. Though Adonijah was supported by the priest Abiathar and Joab the army commander (1 Kings 1–2), his ambitions were frustrated by the secret anointing
The Wycliffe Bible Encyclopedia
Adonijah
ADONIJAH1. The fourth son of David by Haggith (2 Sam 3:4; 1 Chr 3:2). When David was at the brink of death, Adonijah desired to succeed David to the throne, for at that time he was the oldest living son. Gathering chariots, horsemen, and 50 men, Adonijah enlisted the aid of Joab, commander of the army,
The New Bible Dictionary, Third Edition
Adonijah
ADONIJAH (Heb. ’aḏōniyyâ, ‘my lord is Yahweh’). 1. The fourth son of David, by his wife Haggith. After the death of the three eldest he regarded himself as the heir-presumptive. (Amnon had been murdered by his brother Absalom, who himself died in the rebellion against his father. As no mention is
Eerdmans Dictionary of the Bible
Adonijah
Adonijah (Heb. ʾăḏōnɩ̂yâ, ʾăḏōnɩ̂yāhû)1. David’s fourth son, born in Hebron to his wife Haggith (2 Sam. 3:4 = 1 Chr. 3:2).David’s choice of this name, one of the earliest Israelite couplings of ʾāḏôn, “lord,” with a theophoric element, may represent his ambition to adopt—or adapt himself
Eerdmans Bible Dictionary
Adonijah
Adonijah [ădˊə nīˊjə] (Heb. ˒aḏōnîyâ, ˒aḏōnîyāhû “Yahweh is my Lord”).
Catholic Bible Dictionary
Adonijah
ADONIJAH (Hebrew, “my Lord is Yahweh”) The fourth son of David, born at Hebron of his wife Haggith (2 Sam 3:4). When King David was very old, Adonijah tried to take the throne before Solomon, his younger brother and the designated heir, could be installed. Adonijah was supported in his court intrigue
Smith’s Bible Dictionary
Adonijah
Adoni´jah (my Lord is Jehovah).1. The fourth son of David by Haggith, born at Hebron while his father was king of Judah. 2 Sam. 3:4. (b.c. about 1050.) After the death of his three brothers, Amnon, Chileab, and Absalom, he became eldest son; and when his father’s strength was visibly declining, put
See also
Relatives
David Father
Haggith Mother
Solomon Brother
Absalom Brother
Amnon Brother
Son of David Brother
Nathan Brother
Shammua Brother
Chileab Brother
Shobab Brother
Eliphelet Brother
Elishama Brother
Japhia Brother
Shephatiah Brother
Ithream Brother
Nepheg Brother
Eliada Brother
Jerimoth Brother
Elishua Brother
Ibhar Brother
Nogah Brother
Elpelet Brother
Tamar Sister
Joab Cousin
Rehoboam Nephew
Jesse Grandfather
Abishai Cousin
Amasa Cousin
Asahel Cousin
Eliab Uncle
Shimea Uncle
Jonadab Cousin
Abinadab Uncle
Zeruiah Aunt
Jonathan Cousin
Nethanel Uncle
Mattatha Nephew
Ozem Uncle
Abigail Aunt
Raddai Uncle
Tamar Niece
Mahalath Niece
Basemath Niece
Abihail Cousin
Taphath Niece
Roles
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