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A Foreigner
Excerpt from the Lexham Bible Dictionary, the most advanced Bible dictionary.
Sociopolitical labels, such as foreigner and sojourner, used to designate outsiders with regard to Israelite life, culture, and religion.The Old Testament distinguishes between two basic types of non-Israelites: the sojourner (גֵר‎, ger; Exod 12:48; Lev 19:33; Num 9:14; 15:14; Deut 10:18; 24:17; 27:19; Jer 7:6; Mal 3:5) and the foreigner (נָכְרִי‎, nokhriy; בְּנֵי־נֵכָר‎, benei-nekhar; Gen 17:12; 17:27; Exod 12:43, 45; Lev 22:25; Deut 15:3; 23:20). These two Hebrew terms (and the associated verbal form of גֵר‎, ger;–גור‎, gwr; “to sojourn”) primarily occur in the Pentateuch, but they are also used on a few occasions elsewhere in the Old Testament (גֵר‎, ger: Jdg 17:7; 2 Sam 1:13; Job 31:32; Jer 7:6 נָכְרִי‎, nokhriy; בְּנֵי־נֵכָר‎, benei-nekhar: Ruth 2:10; 2 Sam 15:19; 1 Kgs 8:41; Prov 5:10; Isa 56:3; Ezek 44:9).The Pentateuch highlights significant differences and similarities regarding the standing of these assimilated and unassimilated outsiders in relation to Israelite society. Though the sojourner and the foreigner are usually viewed distinctly, they are at times associated with each other in distinction from the Israelites. As Deuteronomy 14:21 (ESV) commands, “You shall not eat anything that has died naturally. You may give it to the sojourner who is within your towns, that he may eat it, or you may sell it to a foreigner.” Although Israelites are not permitted to eat any animal that has died of natural causes, the sojourner and the foreigner are exempt from this legislation.
Dictionaries
The Lexham Bible Dictionary
Outsider, Israelites and the
Outsider, Israelites and the (נָכְרִי‎, nokhriy; בְּנֵי־נֵכָר‎, benei-nekhar; גֵר‎, ger). Sociopolitical labels, such as foreigner and sojourner, used to designate outsiders with regard to Israelite life, culture, and religion.The Old Testament distinguishes between two basic types of non-Israelites: the
The Anchor Yale Bible Dictionary
Foreigner
FOREIGNER. The OT employs a number of largely synonymous terms to designate the “foreigner,” i.e., the person who, in the perspective of the writer or the audience, is irreducibly “other,” the non-belonger in some respect: zār, ben nēkār, nokrı̂. In most instances, the connotations attached to these
Baker Encyclopedia of the Bible
Barbarian
Barbarian. Foreigner, especially a person from a culture regarded as primitive or uncivilized. The Greek word barbaros, translated “barbarian” (kjv), originated as a repeated nonsense syllable, “bar-bar,” in imitation of the strange sound of a foreign language. The Greeks, viewing themselves as the only
Foreigner
Foreigner. Noncitizen or alien, temporary guest, sojourner, or stranger. The Greek word for “proselyte” (“foreigner”) means a stranger in sympathy with Judaism (Mt 23:15; Acts 2:10; 6:5); it can also mean a convert to Christianity.The Hebrew word meaning foreigner is rendered correctly on all occasions
The International Standard Bible Encyclopedia, Revised
Barbarian
Barbarian [GK. bárbaros] (Rom. 1:14; Col. 3:11); NEB also NON-GREEK. Elsewhere the RSV renders “natives” (Acts 28:2, 4), “foreigner” (1 Cor. 14:11); the NEB also renders “(rough) islanders” and paraphrases in 1 Cor. 14:11 “words will be gibberish.” The Greek word was probably formed by imitation of
Foreigner
Foreigner [Heb. nēḵār, ben-nēḵār, noḵrî, zār (Prov. 20:16; 27:13; Ezk. 7:21; 11:9; 28:10; 30:12; 31:12); Gk. xénos (Acts 17:21), allogenēs (Lk. 17:18), bárbaros (1 Cor. 14:21)]; AV also STRANGER, ALIEN, BARBARIAN (1 Cor. 14:11), “other” (1 Cor. 14:21); NEB also STRANGER, ALIEN (Isa. 61:5),
Sojourner; Alien; Stranger
Sojourner; Alien; Stranger Neither the AV nor the RSV displays consistency in rendering the biblical terms for “outsiders.” At times different Hebrew and Greek terms are translated by the same English equivalent; at other times the same expressions in the original are rendered by different English translations.
Tyndale Bible Dictionary
Barbarian
BARBARIAN* Foreigner, especially a person from a culture regarded as primitive or uncivilized. The Greek word barbaros, translated “barbarian” (kjv), originated as a repeated nonsense syllable, “bar-bar,” in imitation of the strange sound of a foreign language. The Greeks, viewing themselves as the only
Foreigner
FOREIGNER Noncitizen or alien, temporary guest, sojourner, or stranger.The Hebrew word meaning “foreigner” is rendered correctly on all occasions in the rsv, but the kjv uses it in its truest sense on only two occasions (Dt 15:3; Ob 1:11). In most cases the kjv translates the word as “alien” (Dt 14:21;
The HarperCollins Bible Dictionary (Revised and Updated)
Alien
alien, in the Bible, one who is not a member of a particular social group. Accordingly, Abraham was an alien (nrsv: “stranger”) among the Hittites at Hebron (Gen. 23:4), as were Moses in Midian (Exod. 2:22) and the Israelites in Egypt (Deut. 23:7; cf. Ruth 1:1). The Hebrew word is ger, and it has often
Barbarian
barbarian, a non-Jew who is also not Greek or Roman. In Col. 3:11, the phrase “Greek and barbarian” is used to mean the entire Gentile world. Elsewhere, 2 Macc. 2:21 uses the word pejoratively for the followers of Antiochus IV Epiphanes. See also Gentile; Greek, Greeks; nations.
Foreigner
foreigner, in the Hebrew Bible, any non-Israelite having temporary contact with Israel; if friendly, foreigners were entitled to hospitable treatment. In contrast, “resident aliens” enjoyed some social and religious privileges (Exod. 12:49). Israelites were frequently warned that extended contact with
The Wycliffe Bible Encyclopedia
Alien
ALIEN. A foreigner (q.v.), one who is denied the privileges of a specific group to which he is not considered to be a member; sometimes the sense of the word stranger (KJV).
Barbarian
BARBARIAN. This word is not found in the OT, though the LXX uses it; e.g., Ps 114:1. It is used five times in the NT. “Barbarian” may be a repeated syllable imitative of a foreigner, “bar bar.” Similarly Egyptians called non-Egyptians berber. So it means speaking an unintelligible tongue in 1 Cor 14:11.
Foreigner
FOREIGNER. Broadly, a Gentile or non-Israelite. The word included all aliens, wherever they resided. Foreigners could not partake of the Passover (Ex 12:43), enter the sanctuary (Ezk 44:9), be chosen king (Deut 17:15), or intermarry with Israelites (Ex 34:15–16). However, foreigners could be received
Pilgrim
PILGRIM. One who comes from a foreign country to dwell by the natives of a city or land, a stranger (1 Pet 1:1), sojourner. Since heaven is the home of the Christian, the NT speaks of Abraham and other believers as pilgrims while on earth (Heb 11:13; 1 Pet 2:11; cf. Gen 23:4; Ps 39:12). See Foreigner.
The New Bible Dictionary, Third Edition
Barbarian
BARBARIAN. A term applied by the Greeks to all non-Greek-speaking peoples. It was not originally, or necessarily, pejorative. Luke actually praises the ‘barbarians’ of *Malta for their exceptional kindness (Acts 28:2–4). Inscriptions show that a Phoenician dialect was spoken on Malta. Perhaps Luke recalls
Foreigner
FOREIGNER. The rather arbitrary fluctuation in evv between alien, foreigner, sojourner and stranger tends to obscure the fact that different groups of people are in view. In the classification which follows this inconsistency of translation should be kept in mind.
Eerdmans Dictionary of the Bible
Barbarian
BarbarianA person not of Greek culture or language (Gk. bárbaros). Originally an onomatopoeic term denoting stammering or unintelligible sounds (“bar bar”), it was used in the LXX, Philo, Josephus, and NT to distinguish “uncivilized” hellenized persons, often but not necessarily with a derogatory connotation.
Foreigner
ForeignerIn the OT words derived from the Hebrew roots zwr and nkr are often used to describe those who are “outsiders” from the speaker’s point of view. The two roots are more or less synonymous and are often used in parallel phrases (e.g., Jer. 5:19b; Prov. 27:13; also Ps. 69:8 [MT 9]; 81:9 [10];
Eerdmans Bible Dictionary
Barbarian
Barbarian (Gk. bárbaros). To the Greeks everyone who did not speak the Greek language was a barbarian. Thus the word had a linguistic and cultural reference; it was not a contemptuous or coarse expression. In the New Testament all who did not share the Greco-Roman culture were called barbarian (“natives,”
Foreigner
Foreigner (Heb. nēḵār, zār; Gk. allogenḗs, bárbaros).* A non-Israelite who comes into temporary contact with the Hebrews as merchant, traveler, or military invader; thus distinguished from the Sojourner or resident alien. The term also indicates the gods of foreign nations (e.g., Josh. 24:20;
Smith’s Bible Dictionary
Barbarian
Barbarian. “Every one not a Greek is a barbarian” is the common Greek definition, and in this strict sense the word is used in Rom. 1:14. It often retains this primitive meaning, as in 1 Cor. 14:11; Acts 28:24.
The New Unger’s Bible Dictionary
Alien
ALIEN (Heb. gēr, lit., “stranger”; Gk. allotrios, “belonging to another,” i.e., “foreign”). A foreigner, or person born in another country, and thus not entitled to the rights of citizenship in the country in which he lives (Deut. 14:21; Ps. 69:8). See Foreigner.
Barbarian
BARBARIAN (Gk. barbaros, “rude”). Originally the term was the Gk. epithet for a people speaking any language other than Gk. After the Persian wars it began to carry with it associations of hatred and to imply vulgarity and lack of culture. The Romans were originally included by the Greeks under the name
Foreigner
FOREIGNER (Heb. nokrı̂ “stranger,” Deut. 15:3; Obad. 11; tôshāb, cf. Ex. 12:45, “dweller,” as distinguished from a native, rendered “sojourner”; also Gk. paroikos, “dwelling near,” Eph. 2:19, rendered “aliens,” or [NIV] “foreigners”). One living in a country of which he is not a native, i.e., in the