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1 Samuel 1:1–2:21

The Birth of Samuel

There was a certain man of aRamathaim-zophim of bthe hill country of Ephraim whose name was Elkanah the son of Jeroham, son of Elihu, son of Tohu, son of Zuph, can Ephrathite. He had two wives. The name of the one was Hannah, and the name of the other, Peninnah. And Peninnah had children, but Hannah had no children.

Now this man used to go up dyear by year from his city eto worship and to sacrifice to the Lord of hosts fat Shiloh, where the two sons of Eli, Hophni and Phinehas, were priests of the Lord. On the day when Elkanah sacrificed, ghe would give portions to Peninnah his wife and to all her sons and daughters. But to Hannah he gave a double portion, because he loved her, though the Lord had closed her womb.1 And her rival used to provoke her grievously to irritate her, because the Lord had closed her womb. So it went on year by year. As often as she went up to the house of the Lord, she used to provoke her. Therefore Hannah wept and would not eat. And Elkanah, her husband, said to her, “Hannah, why do you weep? And why do you not eat? And why is your heart sad? hAm I not more to you than ten sons?”

After they had eaten and drunk in Shiloh, Hannah rose. Now Eli the priest was sitting on the seat beside the doorpost of ithe temple of the Lord. 10 She was jdeeply distressed and prayed to the Lord and wept bitterly. 11 And she kvowed a vow and said, “O Lord of hosts, if you will indeed llook on the affliction of your servant and mremember me and not forget your servant, but will give to your servant a son, then I will give him to the Lord all the days of his life, nand no razor shall touch his head.”

12 As she continued praying before the Lord, Eli observed her mouth. 13 Hannah was speaking in her heart; only her lips moved, and her voice was not heard. Therefore Eli took her to be a drunken woman. 14 And Eli said to her, “How long will you go on being drunk? Put your wine away from you.” 15 But Hannah answered, “No, my lord, I am a woman troubled in spirit. I have drunk neither wine nor strong drink, but oI have been pouring out my soul before the Lord. 16 Do not regard your servant as pa worthless woman, for all along I have been speaking out of my great anxiety and vexation.” 17 Then Eli answered, q“Go in peace, and the God of Israel rgrant your petition that you have made to him.” 18 And she said, s“Let your servant find favor in your eyes.” Then the woman twent her way and ate, and her face was no longer sad.

19 They rose early in the morning and worshiped before the Lord; then they went back to their house at uRamah. And Elkanah knew Hannah his wife, and the Lord vremembered her. 20 And in due time Hannah conceived and bore a son, and she called his name Samuel, for she said, “I have asked for him from the Lord.”2

Samuel Given to the Lord

21 The man Elkanah and all his house wwent up to offer to the Lord the yearly sacrifice and to pay his vow. 22 But Hannah did not go up, for she said to her husband, “As soon as the child is weaned, I will bring him, so that he may appear in the presence of the Lord xand dwell there forever.” 23 yElkanah her husband said to her, “Do what seems best to you; wait until you have weaned him; zonly, may the Lord establish his word.” So the woman remained and nursed her son until she weaned him. 24 And when she had weaned him, ashe took him up with her, along with a three-year-old bull,3 an ephah4 of flour, and a skin of wine, and she brought him to bthe house of the Lord at Shiloh. And the child was young. 25 Then they slaughtered the bull, and they brought the child to Eli. 26 And she said, “Oh, my lord! cAs you live, my lord, I am the woman who was standing here in your presence, praying to the Lord. 27 For this child I prayed, dand the Lord has granted me my petition that I made to him. 28 Therefore I have lent him to the Lord. As long as he lives, he is lent to the Lord.”

eAnd he worshiped the Lord there.

Hannah’s Prayer

And Hannah prayed and said,

f“My heart exults in the Lord;

gmy horn is exalted in the Lord.

My mouth derides my enemies,

because hI rejoice in your salvation.

i“There is none holy like the Lord:

for there is none besides you;

there is jno rock like our God.

Talk no more so very proudly,

let not arrogance come from your mouth;

for the Lord is a God of knowledge,

and by him actions are weighed.

kThe bows of the mighty are broken,

but the feeble bind on strength.

Those who were full have hired themselves out for bread,

but those who were hungry have ceased to hunger.

lThe barren has borne seven,

mbut she who has many children is forlorn.

nThe Lord kills and brings to life;

he brings down to Sheol and raises up.

oThe Lord makes poor and makes rich;

phe brings low and he exalts.

qHe raises up the poor from the dust;

he lifts the needy from the ash heap

rto make them sit with princes

and inherit a seat of honor.

sFor the pillars of the earth are the Lord’s,

and on them he has set the world.

t“He will guard the feet of his faithful ones,

but the wicked shall be cut off in darkness,

for not by might shall a man prevail.

10  uThe adversaries of the Lord shall be broken to pieces;

vagainst them he will thunder in heaven.

wThe Lord will judge the ends of the earth;

he will give strength to his king

xand exalt the horn of his anointed.”

11 Then Elkanah went home yto Ramah. zAnd the boy1 was ministering to the Lord in the presence of Eli the priest.

Eli’s Worthless Sons

12 Now the sons of Eli were aworthless men. bThey did not know the Lord. 13 The custom of the priests with the people was that when any man offered sacrifice, the priest’s servant would come, while the meat was boiling, with a three-pronged fork in his hand, 14 and he would thrust it into the pan or kettle or cauldron or pot. All that the fork brought up the priest would take for himself. This is what they did at Shiloh to all the Israelites who came there. 15 Moreover, cbefore the fat was burned, the priest’s servant would come and say to the man who was sacrificing, “Give meat for the priest to roast, for he will not accept boiled meat from you but only raw.” 16 And if the man said to him, “Let them burn the fat first, and then take as much as you wish,” he would say, “No, you must give it now, and if not, I will take it by force.” 17 Thus the sin of the young men was very great din the sight of the Lord, efor the men treated the offering of the Lord with contempt.

18 fSamuel was ministering before the Lord, a boy gclothed with a linen ephod. 19 And his mother used to make for him a little robe and take it to him each year hwhen she went up with her husband to offer the yearly sacrifice. 20 Then Eli would bless Elkanah and his wife, and say, “May the Lord give you children by this woman ifor the petition she asked of the Lord.” So then they would return to their home.

21 jIndeed the Lord visited Hannah, and she conceived and bore three sons and two daughters. kAnd the boy Samuel grew in the presence of the Lord.

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Syriac; the meaning of the Hebrew is uncertain. Septuagint And, although he loved Hannah, he would give Hannah only one portion, because the Lord had closed her womb

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Samuel sounds like the Hebrew for heard of God

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Dead Sea Scroll, Septuagint, Syriac; Masoretic Text three bulls

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An ephah was about 3/5 bushel or 22 liters

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Hebrew na‘ar can be rendered boy (2:11, 18, 21, 26; 3:1, 8), servant (2:13, 15), or young man (2:17), depending on the context

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